Coastal Soil Treatment To Stabilize Vertical Breakwaters

Author(s) Information

Khelalfa Houssam is a researcher in Civil, Ggotechnical & Coastal Engineering, at LGCE Laboratory University of Jijel in Algeria and School of Civil Engineering & Surveying of Portsmouth University in UK. He is the author of several science articles and books, he is a reviewer on international journals.


Maritime geotechnics is one of the most difficult specialties and is part of civil and coastal engineering. This book combines, defines and summarizes the role of the geotechnician in the coastal engineering, in terms of scientific research, design and construction. As this book cleverly collects between academic and professional side, so that ease to understand and solve the problems related to the conception, stability and construction of the maritime structure in an interdependent and complete manner. We have tried as much as possible in this book to give an academic and professional tool for geotechnicians so that he can get the knowledge and mastery of all the necessary measures and steps for the design and realization of maritime structures.


Civil, Numerical Modelling, Soil Improvement, Geotechnical and Coastal Engineering, Breakwaters Stability, Monitoring

Table of Contents

I. Generality
I.1. Introduction
I.2. Protective structures
  I.2.1. Vertical breakwater (caisson)
  I.2.2. Mixed dyke (JARLAN'S caisson)
  I.2.3. Quay in caissons
  I.2.4. Quay blocks of reinforced concrete
I.3. Protection en enrochement des ouvrages portuaires
  I.3.1. Main characteristics of rip-rap
  I.3.2. Geotextiles
I.4. Bathymetry and morphology related to maritime structures
  I.4.1. Bathymetry
  I.4.2. The morphodynamic
  I.4.3. Interaction between morphology and bathymetry
  I.4.4. Shear stress on the seabed
  I.4.5. Interstitial pressures and internal flow
I.5. Movements of the sea
  I.5.1. Theory of wave
  I.5.2. Methods of calculating charges on a vertical breakwater
I.6. Ruptures (Failures) analysis of a verical breakwater (caisson)
  I.6.1. Failure mechanisms
  I.6.2. Analysis of limit states
I.7. Numerical and physical modelling
  I.7.1. Two-phase modelling of dynamic soil - water - structure interaction
I.8. Conclusion
II. Presentation of a case study "Djen Djen port"
II.1. Presentation of the project
II.2. The Principal Works
II.3. The steps of execution of protection structures
II.4. The execution steps of the new container terminal
III. Improvement of marine sands
III.1. Introduction
III.2. Choosing a soil improvement method
  III.2.1. Soil Compatibility
III.3. Vibroflotation technique
  III.3.1. Factors introduce on vibroflotation treatment
  III.3.2. Study methods
  III.3.3. Improvement of the Djendjen port sands by vibroflotation
III.4. Dynamic compacting with high energy technique
  III.4.1. Mechanism of the DC
  III.4.2. Hydraulic embankments
  III.4.3. Execution the compaction to the caisson manufacturing workshop in the DjenDjen port
III.5. Preloading technique
  III.5.1. Soil behavior during a preloading
  III.5.2. Selection of the subsoil improvement process
  III.5.3. Preview of pre-loading of the caissons
  III.5.4. Examination of stability during the execution of works.
  III.5.5. Examination of liquefaction for the sand layer
IV. Applications of consolidation treatment methods
IV.1. Introduction
IV.2. Applications de la vibroflottation.
  IV.2.1. Characteristics load- settlement of the foundation; Port Talbot case, Saint Helens, UK
  IV.2.2. Case study of; in Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilizers sector, Mangalore port, located on the western coast of the state of Karnataka, India.
  IV.2.3. Tangshan case study in China (on the effect of vibroflotation for the improvement of sandy soils)
  IV.2.4. Apollonia Case Study [1953]; distribution of the columns to be treated
  IV.2.5. Case study by Basore and Boitano in Spain; densification - 1969
  IV.2.6. Case study of a test board
  IV.2.7. The effect of compaction on KO and earth pressure
  IV.2.8. Changing stress states
IV.3. Dynamic compaction applications
  IV.3.1. The effect of densification
  IV.3.2. The Depth of treatment
  IV.3.3. Environmental considerations
IV.4. Preloading Applications
  IV.4.1. The effect of densification
  IV.4.2. The effect of overload-settlement
  IV.4.3. The effect of pore pressure
  IV.4.4. The effect on the constraints (stress)
  IV.4.5. L’effet sur la liquéfaction
V. Numerical simulation of treatment methods.
V.1. Numerical simulation of vibroflotation
V.2. Numerical simulation of dynamic compaction
V.3. Numerical simulation of pre-loading and evaluation of the stability of quay in caissons by the finite element method "the code PLAXIS 2D V8.2"
VI. Study of the stability of marine structures
VI.1. Introduction
VI.2. Stability study of the protection structures
  VI.2.1. Evaluation of settlement by the finite element method
  VI.2.2. Calculate loads of the caissons (jetty)
  VI.2.3. Modeling results before and after soil improvement
VI.3. Study of the stability of port dykes in caissons
  VI.3.1. Examination of the stability of the anchoring layer of the foundation of the quay wall (caisson)
  VI.3.2. Profile stability Examination
  VI.3.3. Loads and conditions to examine Berthing structures
  VI.3.4. Examination of the stability of the crown beam
  VI.3.5. Details of the assessment of the stability of the anchoring layer of the quay wall (caissons) foundation after completion
VI.4. Study of the stability of the junctions of the quay wall
VI.5. Study of the stability of the dredged slope
VI.6. Study of the stability of the blocks of the caissons manufacturing workshop
VII. Monitoring, Auscultation & instrumentations of marine structures
VII.1. Introduction
VII.2. Inspection of sections of the marine structure
  VII.2.1. Inspection above the water level
  VII.2.2. Underwater inspection
VII.3. Methodology of execution of the work of the Auscultation and Instrumentation measurement plan
  VII.3.1. Installation and control of measuring instruments.
  VII.3.2. Plan and sectional view of installation of measuring instruments
  VII.3.3. Measurement control plan
VII.4. Methodology of implementation of measuring devices.
  VII.4.1. Description of recommended procedures for setting up the equipment