Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease

Journal profile

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in Epidemiology. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease.

Latest Articles

Open Access August 24, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Deaths due to COVID-19 among Hospitalized Patients in Sidama Region, Ethiopia

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(2), 69-77. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.402
Abstract
Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which started in China's Hubei province in 2019, has caused a significant loss of human lives globally. This study describes the epidemiologic and clinical profiles of COVID-19 related deaths among patients admitted to treatment centers in Sidama region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study of 186
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Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which started in China's Hubei province in 2019, has caused a significant loss of human lives globally. This study describes the epidemiologic and clinical profiles of COVID-19 related deaths among patients admitted to treatment centers in Sidama region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study of 186 in hospital COVID-19 related deaths that occurred from July 2020 to December 2021 in Sidama region were analyzed. Data was extracted from regional emergency operation center death report. Data was entered using Epidata v3.1 and analysis was done using SPSS v.20. Categorical data was summarized using frequency and percentage while continuous data was summarized using median and interquartile range. Association between variables was assessed using chi-square test. More than two-third of the deceased patients were male (135; 72.6%) and median age at death was 60. The majority of deaths (151; 81.1%) occurred in 2021, while April 2021 had the highest death records. Cough and shortness of breath were the main presenting symptoms occurring in 89.2% and 85.5% of deceased patients respectively. Most of the COVID-19 related deaths (64.5%) had associated comorbidities. Diabetes (50%) and Hypertension (39.2%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. Significant proportion of patients (74.73%) presented on severe end of disease spectrum (critical/ severe). Of the deceased patients, around two-third required Intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 111 of them were put on mechanical ventilator. Moreover, the median ICU stay was 4 days. Around half of the death (48.4%) occurred in the first 5 days. The median survival time from symptom onset was 11.5 days with most (43.5%) of the deaths occurring within the first 14 days of symptom onset. Age category was significantly associated with the number of days from onset to death (p=0.006). The case fatality rate was 1.87% which is lower than national and global reports. Unlike previous studies, the prevalence of asthma among deceased patients was low and there were no patients with documented COPD.Full article
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Open Access June 4, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Women’s socio-demographic and cultural factors influencing unmet need for family planning in rural areas of The Gambia: Evidence from a population-based analytical cross-sectional study

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(2), 50-68. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.304
Abstract
Background: Reproductive health is a critical component of overall health and development. Unmet contraceptive needs are one of the regularly cited measures of the efficacy of family planning (FP) initiatives. This study set out to determine the magnitude and associated factors of unmet need for FP among women of reproductive-aged
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Background: Reproductive health is a critical component of overall health and development. Unmet contraceptive needs are one of the regularly cited measures of the efficacy of family planning (FP) initiatives. This study set out to determine the magnitude and associated factors of unmet need for FP among women of reproductive-aged (15-49 years) in the provincial areas of The Gambia. Methods: The study used a community-based cross-sectional analytical design. A multistage sampling strategy, comprising simple random and cluster sampling, was utilized to obtain a sample of 643 childbearing women (15-49 years) from rural Gambia's sampled clusters. Data collection was conducted using pre-tested structured interview questionnaires. The association was examined using chi-square/fisher's exact test with a significance level of p<0.05. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the effect of sociodemographic and cultural determinants on unmet FP need, with corresponding computed adjusted odds ratios (aOR). IBM SPSS version 24 was used for data entry and analysis. Results: The unmet need for FP among the study participants was 25.2%; unmet need for spacing and unmet need for limiting was 17.4% and 7.8%, respectively. The total demand for FP was 59.4%, while the satisfaction of demand for FP was 57.6%. The significant predictors of unmet need for FP were woman’s age at first pregnancy (aOR=0.899, p=0.033), LGA of origin (aOR=0.240, p=0.001) and frequency of using contraceptives (aOR=1.587, p=0.032). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a high unmet need for FP among rural women in The Gambia, with the most often cited reason for non-use being fear of side effects. Hence, it is necessary to concentrate FP services for rural populations, stressing education regarding contraceptive side effects, service quality, and gender equality. Additionally, the study suggests that male participation and religious leaders' involvement in FP programs be strengthened and mainstreamed, as well as the establishment of a communication program that specifically promotes inter-spousal communication.Full article
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Open Access May 22, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Prevalence and predictors of physical activity among female high school students in The Gambia: an institutional-based cross-sectional study

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(2), 38-49. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.300
Abstract
Background: Everyone, irrespective of age, sex, colour, ethnicity, or present overall fitness level, can benefit from regular exercise. To improve one's health, one must engage in regular physical activity. People with underlying illnesses like long-term impairment can benefit from regular physical activity at the individual level, especially young women. Thus,
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Background: Everyone, irrespective of age, sex, colour, ethnicity, or present overall fitness level, can benefit from regular exercise. To improve one's health, one must engage in regular physical activity. People with underlying illnesses like long-term impairment can benefit from regular physical activity at the individual level, especially young women. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of physical activity among female school-aged adolescents in the West Coast Region of The Gambia. Methods: The present study used an institutional-based cross-sectional analytical study to collect quantitative data from 384 female high school students in The Gambia. The study used a content-validated, pretested structured questionnaire that consisted of both open and closed-ended questions on physical activity. The data were processed and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 26.0. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square and/or Fisher exact test were used with a p-value <0.15 for inclusion in the logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, while p-value <0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: The proportion of female students involved in physical activity was 37.5%. The mean age of students was 18.8 years with a standard deviation of 1.7 years. Factors such as female students between 17 – 20 years (aOR:3.05, 95% C.I. (1.807 – 5.138)), father never been to school (aOR: 2.82, 95% C.I. (1.495 – 5.334)), primary education (aOR: 2.15, 95% C.I. (1.027 – 4.493)), upper basic school (aOR: 2.31, 95% C.I. (1.055 – 5.074)) and science major students (aOR: 2.21, 95% C.I. (1.203 – 4.047)) had increased odds of involving in PA. Furthermore, students who knew that exercise would strengthen bones (aOR: 2.62, 95% C.I (1.444 – 4.739)), do a planned brisk walking (aOR: 19.16, 95% C.I. (6.698 – 54.811)), basketball/football (aOR: 29.76, 95% C.I. (10.004 – 88.512)) and skipping with rope (aOR: 29.15, 95% C.I. (9.726 – 87.333)) had increased odds to involved in PA after controlling for confounders. Other factors such as students whose mother never been to school (aOR: 0.31, 95% C.I. (0.140 – 0.674)), primary level (aOR: 0.25, 95% C.I. (0.123 – 0.518)), senior secondary level (aOR: 0.42, 95% C.I. (0.189 – 0.935)), nuclear family (aOR: 0.23, 95% C.I. (0.119 – 0.458)) and extended family (aOR: 0.45, 95% C.I. (0.225 – 0.915)) had reduced odds of involving in PA. Conclusion: There is low physical activity among female adolescents in schools. For this, it is imperative that suitable interventions be implemented to raise the level of physical activity among secondary school students. A future intervention for school-aged adolescents could benefit from these findings.Full article
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Open Access March 26, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Role of Ivermectin in Management of COVID-19

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(2), 36-37. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.238
Abstract
The pandemic corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by (SARS-CoV-2) a single stranded-RNA virus, has been spread rapidly worldwide with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Few months after the spread of the pandemic, few medications have proven to be efficient in human clinical trials. Several antiviral drugs have been
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The pandemic corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by (SARS-CoV-2) a single stranded-RNA virus, has been spread rapidly worldwide with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Few months after the spread of the pandemic, few medications have proven to be efficient in human clinical trials. Several antiviral drugs have been used outside the scope of their initial medical use, such as lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine or azithromycin. Recent researches were done to show the efficacy of ivermectin in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA within 2 days. The use of ivermectin in in vitro studies has proven its efficacy against Corona virus. Based on the potency of ivermectin in in vitro studies, various clinical trials including patients infected with COVID-19 have been started; most of them have not been completed yet. Since the way how the virus infects the cells in vitro and in vivo is different, a decisive comment about how the ivermectin could exactly be beneficial to the patients has not been proven yet. Nevertheless, if ivermectin is compared to the other therapeutic treatments available for COVID-19 management, ivermectin has proved to have leverage over them. New randomized controlled clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of ivermectin the management of COVID-19 are strongly and urgently needed.Full article
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Open Access March 26, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Healthcare Workers Should Receive Seasonal Influenza Vaccine during COVID-19 Pandemic?

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(1), 33-35. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.215
Abstract
It is known that seasonal influenza virus vaccination is important to be taken every year among healthcare workers (HCWs) to avoid transmission of influenza virus and its complications inside the workplace. The reason behind the importance of vaccination is that HCWs are at high risk to be infected with influenza
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It is known that seasonal influenza virus vaccination is important to be taken every year among healthcare workers (HCWs) to avoid transmission of influenza virus and its complications inside the workplace. The reason behind the importance of vaccination is that HCWs are at high risk to be infected with influenza virus. Among the studies addressing the rates of influenza vaccine status among HCWs, a study was conducted in three Middle East countries where the vaccination rates were 24.7%, 67.2%, and 46.4% in United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Oman, respectively. Now, after the pandemic of COVID-19 there are beliefs that vaccination with influenza virus could decrease the deaths from COVID-19. A recent retrospective cohort study to detect the effect of seasonal influenza vaccine on the deaths among COVID-19 patients showed that the individuals who didn’t take the influenza vaccine in the last year before being infected with COVID-19 had a higher risk of being hospitalized when compared with patients who took the vaccine. In conclusion, seasonal influenza vaccine could have an important role in the prevention of COVID-19. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage should be improved among HCWs. New tailored health education programs to improve the attitudes and beliefs of HCWs towards seasonal influenza vaccine during the era of COVID-19 are strongly and urgently needed.Full article
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Open Access February 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Prevalence and Determinants of Acute Respiratory Infections among Children under Five Years in Rural Settings of The Gambia: Evidence from a National Survey

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(1), 23-32. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.247
Abstract
Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) generally describe a group of infections caused by a range of organisms whose site of action includes the nostrils, through the pharynx to the alveoli. ARIs are reportedly key contributing factors to childhood morbidities and deaths, with a higher impact on children less than the
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Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) generally describe a group of infections caused by a range of organisms whose site of action includes the nostrils, through the pharynx to the alveoli. ARIs are reportedly key contributing factors to childhood morbidities and deaths, with a higher impact on children less than the age of five years. This paper aimed at exploring the prevalence of ARIs and their contextual determinants among children less than 60 months of age in the rural settings of the Gambia. Method: The Gambia Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) in 2019-20 was used for this study. Data were obtained from 1364 rural women aged 15-49 with children less than 60 months through a stratified two-stage cluster sampling approach. Percentages and chi-square tests were used and variables with p-value <0.15 were included in the model. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the predictors of acute respiratory infection at 95% confidence interval (CIs) with computed adjusted odds ratios (aORs). All the study data were analyzed using Stata version 17. Results: The weighted prevalence of ARIs among children under 60 months of age in the rural Gambia was 37.1% with 95% CI (34.5% - 39.6%). The magnitude of ARI was higher among children 25-60 months age group (38.6%), male children (38.9%) unvaccinated children (42.9%), and those whose fathers and mothers were not working at 60.5% and 38.7%, respectively. In the adjusted model, children whose mother had primary education (aOR=0.65, 95% CI= 0.46-0.91), currently non-breastfed children (aOR=1.40, 95% CI= 1.09-1.79) and those whose father were not working (aOR=2.65, 95% CI= 1.47-4.17) were found to be associated with ARIs among children less than 60 months in The Gambia. Conclusion: The prevalence of ARI was moderately high across children under 5 years of age in rural Gambia, low mother’s educational levels, and unemployed fathers. The program must consider improvements in the quality of care provided to children in both primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare levels in rural settings. Partner support and adapting community-based supporting systems on child health strategies should be strengthened especially in rural settings.Full article
Research Article
Open Access February 22, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Melatonin could be used for Treatment of COVID-19?

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(1), 19-22. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.188
Abstract
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a broad family of potentially serious RNA viruses that are now causing an outbreak of respiratory disease known as CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19). Melatonin is a pineal hormone that is predominantly produced and released at night from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin and its metabolites are also
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Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a broad family of potentially serious RNA viruses that are now causing an outbreak of respiratory disease known as CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19). Melatonin is a pineal hormone that is predominantly produced and released at night from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin and its metabolites are also important in immunomodulation, and they have antioxidative properties due to their capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species both directly and indirectly. COVID-19 leads to changes of altered consciousness levels in about 15% of hospitalized patients, starting from somnolence to disorientation, delirium, stupor, and coma. Melatonin can decrease the molecules that cause delirium in the elderly and central respiratory depression, such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Melatonin may help alleviate infection-induced acute respiratory distress as well as its diverse effects, which include anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immune-enhancing properties. Its supplemental dose may be able to prevent SARS-COV-2 infections by reversing aerobic glycolysis via suppression of both HIF-1 and mTOR, allowing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity to be suppressed and acetyl-coenzyme A to be produced. When mitochondrion-produced and parenteral melatonin are combined, the cytokine storm is reduced, and COVID-19 infection-induced damage is alleviated. In conclusion, melatonin could have an important role in the management of COVID-19.Full article
Mini Review
Open Access February 10, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

A Retrospective, Cross-sectional Hospital-based Study to Determine the Epidemiological, Clinical and Comorbidity Characteristics in Older Adults with Psoriasis

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(1), 4-18. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.182
Abstract
Background: Psoriasis is extensively studied among middle-aged adults, but not many have studied psoriasis in older adults(geriatrics). OBJECTIVES: To analyze epidemiological, clinical, comorbidities and therapeutic profile of geriatric psoriasis(GP). METHODS: All consenting clinically diagnosed psoriatic patients ≥60 years were divided into two groups: Elderly psoriatic(EP)(60-75 years) and Ultra elderly psoriatic(UP)(>75
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Background: Psoriasis is extensively studied among middle-aged adults, but not many have studied psoriasis in older adults(geriatrics). OBJECTIVES: To analyze epidemiological, clinical, comorbidities and therapeutic profile of geriatric psoriasis(GP). METHODS: All consenting clinically diagnosed psoriatic patients ≥60 years were divided into two groups: Elderly psoriatic(EP)(60-75 years) and Ultra elderly psoriatic(UP)(>75 years). The dermatologist filled their clinical characteristics’ standardised questionnaire to determine comorbidities, drug interactions profile and compared with age-matched controls using Chi square test. RESULTS: Prevalence of GP is 14.5%(Average age:68 years; Sex ratio=2.5:1)among geriatrics attending dermatology OPD. Most common(49.9%) as well as initial site affected(39.3%) were Palms±Soles. Nummular plaque (90.2%) was most common type. Superficial fungal infection(26.9%) and pruritus(90.8%) were commonly associated cutaneous disease and symptom(p<0.05) respectively. Hypertension(49.7%),Diabetes Mellitus(22.8%), dyslipidemia(25.8%) and Metabolic syndrome(MS)(17.8%) were associated systemic comorbidities. Dyslipidemia and MS(p<0.0001) were more common among GP(163) than controls(963). Drug aggravated psoriasis could not be linked to polypharmacy. Although, topicals were mainstay, oral Methotrexate was most efficacious systemically. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a trimodal age of psoriasis onset at 68 years. As age advances, psoriasis severity decreases, unstable guttate lesions decrease; palms±soles commonly involved; infrequent familial occurrence with Polypharmacy not aggravating psoriasis. Active screening for cardiovascular comorbidities in all geriatric psoriasis patients is highly recommended.Full article
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Open Access December 16, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Role of Colchicine in Management of COVID-19?

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(1), 1-3. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.177
Abstract
CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted a great burden on the health and economic systems worldwide. One of the most important factors that affect the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 is the occurrence of hyperstimulation of the immune system resulting in “cytokine storm”. Similar to SARS-CoV, an intracellular complex
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CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted a great burden on the health and economic systems worldwide. One of the most important factors that affect the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 is the occurrence of hyperstimulation of the immune system resulting in “cytokine storm”. Similar to SARS-CoV, an intracellular complex called nod like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was found to be activated by SARS-CoV-2, then in turn stimulates several interleukins and initiates the inflammatory cascade. In addition, other inflammatory mediators such as interferons e.g., IFN-α, and IFN-γ, interleukins e.g., IL-1β, IL-12, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), and chemokines e.g., CCL2, CXCL10 have been reported in severely ill patients. These mediators represent the corner stone in developing cytokine storm that results in uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction with subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure and eventually death. Based on its anti-inflammatory effects, colchicine has also gained attention to be utilized in the management of COVID-19 patient. Colchicine exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of formation of microtubules which is considered an essential step in several cellular processes such as division, signalling, and migration. Also, colchicine affects the cytokine cascade by inhibiting IL-1β leading to reduction in neutrophils recruitment, free radicles production and inflammasome stimulation. This raises the concerns about the effectiveness of colchicine in COVID-19 treatment and the possibility of providing an improvement of the clinical course of the disease.Full article
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Open Access November 29, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Mucormycosis and Candida Infections in Patients of COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Systematic Review

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2021, 1(1), 81-90. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2021.179
Abstract
Introduction: The city of Wuhan in China reported the first case of coronavirus, termed as SARS-CoV-2, in December 2019. To date, 187,827,660 cases have been reported to the WHO (3). With current research focusing on potential therapeutic agents for the coronavirus disease and vaccines, there remain major gaps in our
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Introduction: The city of Wuhan in China reported the first case of coronavirus, termed as SARS-CoV-2, in December 2019. To date, 187,827,660 cases have been reported to the WHO (3). With current research focusing on potential therapeutic agents for the coronavirus disease and vaccines, there remain major gaps in our understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical course of this viral pneumonia. Secondary infections are one of them. In this systematic review, we analyze the outcomes of two fungal infections in patients of COVID-19, viz. Mucormycosis and candida. Methodology: A systematic review has been done on secondary infections with mucor and candida fungi in patients of COVID-19. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Twenty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Our review included studies from various countries across the globe. The risk of bias was analyzed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Case Series Studies. This study did not require ethical approval as data was obtained from already available databases, and patients were not directly involved. Results: A total of 23 articles were included in the final review and the total number of patients included was 79 Male: female ratio was calculated to be 1.6 and the average age of patients was 52 years (ranging from 24-86 years). Various types of comorbidities were seen in the included patients, the most common being diabetes mellitus. Among the 18 patients in the cohort of mucormycosis, 7 patients died and four studies did not report patient outcomes. Among the 61 patients, 13 patients died and one patient was still ventilated at the time of publication. Conclusion: Secondary infections after COVID-19 are a cause of major concerns. Further studies and case reports are needed to better understand the various other types of secondary infections and also to formulate strategies to prevent these.Full article
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ISSN: 2770-8675
DOI prefix: 10.31586/gjeid
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