Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/gjeid <p><strong><em>Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease</em> </strong>is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in Epidemiology. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease.</p> en-US Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2770-8675 Prevalence and Determinants of Acute Respiratory Infections among Children under Five Years in Rural Settings of The Gambia: Evidence from a National Survey https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/gjeid/article/view/247 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) generally describe a group of infections caused by a range of organisms whose site of action includes the nostrils, through the pharynx to the alveoli. ARIs are reportedly key contributing factors to childhood morbidities and deaths, with a higher impact on children less than the age of five years. This paper aimed at exploring the prevalence of ARIs and their contextual determinants among children less than 60 months of age in the rural settings of the Gambia. <strong>Method:</strong> The Gambia Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) in 2019-20 was used for this study. Data were obtained from 1364 rural women aged 15-49 with children less than 60 months through a stratified two-stage cluster sampling approach. Percentages and chi-square tests were used and variables with p-value &lt;0.15 were included in the model. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the predictors of acute respiratory infection at 95% confidence interval (CIs) with computed adjusted odds ratios (aORs). All the study data were analyzed using Stata version 17. <strong>Results:</strong> The weighted prevalence of ARIs among children under 60 months of age in the rural Gambia was 37.1% with 95% CI (34.5% - 39.6%). The magnitude of ARI was higher among children 25-60 months age group (38.6%), male children (38.9%) unvaccinated children (42.9%), and those whose fathers and mothers were not working at 60.5% and 38.7%, respectively. In the adjusted model, children whose mother had primary education [aOR=0.65, 95% CI= 0.46-0.91], currently non-breastfed children [aOR=1.40, 95% CI= 1.09-1.79] and those whose father were not working [aOR=2.65, 95% CI= 1.47-4.17] were found to be associated with ARIs among children less than 60 months in The Gambia. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of ARI was moderately high across children under 5 years of age in rural Gambia, low mother’s educational levels, and unemployed fathers. The program must consider improvements in the quality of care provided to children in both primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare levels in rural settings. Partner support and adapting community-based supporting systems on child health strategies should be strengthened especially in rural settings.</p> Amadou Barrow Afape Ayobami Precious Chidozie Azubuike Dalanda Cham Copyright (c) 2021 Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022-02-25 2022-02-25 23 32 Role of Colchicine in Management of COVID-19? https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/gjeid/article/view/177 <p>CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted a great burden on the health and economic systems worldwide. One of the most important factors that affect the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 is the occurrence of hyperstimulation of the immune system resulting in “cytokine storm”. Similar to SARS-CoV, an intracellular complex called nod like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was found to be activated by SARS-CoV-2, then in turn stimulates several interleukins and initiates the inflammatory cascade. In addition, other inflammatory mediators such as interferons e.g., IFN-α, and IFN-γ, interleukins e.g., IL-1β, IL-12, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), and chemokines e.g., CCL2, CXCL10 have been reported in severely ill patients. These mediators represent the corner stone in developing cytokine storm that results in uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction with subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure and eventually death. Based on its anti-inflammatory effects, colchicine has also gained attention to be utilized in the management of COVID-19 patient. Colchicine exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of formation of microtubules which is considered an essential step in several cellular processes such as division, signalling, and migration. Also, colchicine affects the cytokine cascade by inhibiting IL-1β leading to reduction in neutrophils recruitment, free radicles production and inflammasome stimulation. This raises the concerns about the effectiveness of colchicine in COVID-19 treatment and the possibility of providing an improvement of the clinical course of the disease.</p> Kholoud Mohamed Elawady Elhefnawy Elshiwy Ghada Essam ElDin Amin Mohamed Nazmy Farris Rasha Samir Mohamed Farouk Allam Copyright (c) 2021 Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2021-12-16 2021-12-16 1 3 A Retrospective, Cross-sectional Hospital-based Study to Determine the Epidemiological, Clinical and Comorbidity Characteristics in Older Adults with Psoriasis https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/gjeid/article/view/182 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Psoriasis is extensively studied among middle-aged adults, but not many have studied psoriasis in older adults(geriatrics). <strong>Objectives: </strong>To analyze epidemiological, clinical, comorbidities and therapeutic profile of geriatric psoriasis(GP). <strong>Methods: </strong>All consenting clinically diagnosed psoriatic patients ≥60 years were divided into two groups: Elderly psoriatic(EP)(60-75 years) and Ultra elderly psoriatic(UP)(&gt;75 years). The dermatologist filled their clinical characteristics’ standardised questionnaire to determine comorbidities, drug interactions profile and compared with age-matched controls using Chi square test. <strong>Results: </strong>Prevalence of GP is 14.5%(Average age:68 years; Sex ratio=2.5:1) among geriatrics attending dermatology OPD. Most common(49.9%) as well as initial site affected(39.3%) were Palms±Soles. Nummular plaque (90.2%) was most common type. Superficial fungal infection(26.9%) and pruritus(90.8%) were commonly associated cutaneous disease and symptom(p&lt;0.05) respectively. Hypertension(49.7%), Diabetes Mellitus(22.8%), dyslipidemia(25.8%) and Metabolic syndrome(MS)(17.8%) were associated systemic comorbidities. Dyslipidemia and MS(p&lt;0.0001) were more common among GP(163) than controls(963). Drug aggravated psoriasis could not be linked to polypharmacy. Although, topicals were mainstay, oral Methotrexate was most efficacious systemically. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our findings suggest a trimodal age of psoriasis onset at 68 years. As age advances, psoriasis severity decreases, unstable guttate lesions decrease; palms±soles commonly involved; infrequent familial occurrence with Polypharmacy not aggravating psoriasis. Active screening for cardiovascular comorbidities in all geriatric psoriasis patients is highly recommended.</p> Khushboo Minni Murlidhar Rajagopalan Copyright (c) 2021 Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022-02-10 2022-02-10 4 18 Melatonin could be used for Treatment of COVID-19? https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/gjeid/article/view/188 <p>Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a broad family of potentially serious RNA viruses that are now causing an outbreak of respiratory disease known as CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19). Melatonin is a pineal hormone that is predominantly produced and released at night from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin and its metabolites are also important in immunomodulation, and they have antioxidative properties due to their capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species both directly and indirectly. COVID-19 leads to changes of altered consciousness levels in about 15% of hospitalized patients, starting from somnolence to disorientation, delirium, stupor, and coma. Melatonin can decrease the molecules that cause delirium in the elderly and central respiratory depression, such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Melatonin may help alleviate infection-induced acute respiratory distress as well as its diverse effects, which include anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immune-enhancing properties. Its supplemental dose may be able to prevent SARS-COV-2 infections by reversing aerobic glycolysis via suppression of both HIF-1 and mTOR, allowing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity to be suppressed and acetyl-coenzyme A to be produced. When mitochondrion-produced and parenteral melatonin are combined, the cytokine storm is reduced, and COVID-19 infection-induced damage is alleviated. In conclusion, melatonin could have an important role in the management of COVID-19.</p> Rehab Mohamed Ali Mohamed Ghada Essam El-Din Amin Salwa Mostafa Mohammad Abdel Rahman Mohamed Farouk Allam Copyright (c) 2021 Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022-02-22 2022-02-22 19 22 Healthcare Workers Should Receive Seasonal Influenza Vac-cine during COVID-19 Pandemic? https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/gjeid/article/view/215 <p>It is known that seasonal influenza virus vaccination is important to be taken every year among healthcare workers (HCWs) to avoid transmission of influenza virus and its complications inside the workplace. The reason behind the importance of vaccination is that HCWs are at high risk to be infected with influenza virus. Among the studies addressing the rates of influenza vaccine status among HCWs, a study was conducted in three Middle East countries where the vaccination rates were 24.7%, 67.2%, and 46.4% in United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and Oman, respectively. Now, after the pandemic of COVID-19 there are beliefs that vaccination with influenza virus could decrease the deaths from COVID-19. A recent retrospective cohort study to detect the effect of seasonal influenza vaccine on the deaths among COVID-19 patients showed that the individuals who didn’t take the influenza vaccine in the last year before being infected with COVID-19 had a higher risk of being hospitalized when compared with patients who took the vaccine. In conclusion, seasonal influenza vaccine could have an important role in the prevention of COVID-19. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage should be improved among HCWs. New tailored health education programs to improve the attitudes and beliefs of HCWs towards seasonal influenza vaccine during the era of COVID-19 are strongly and urgently needed.</p> Hadir Fathy Abdel-Rahman Ibrahim Aisha Aboul Fotouh Mohamed Farouk Allam Copyright (c) 2021 Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022-03-26 2022-03-26 33 35