Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease

Volume 2, Number 2, 2022

Open Access May 22, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Prevalence and predictors of physical activity among female high school students in The Gambia: an institutional-based cross-sectional study

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(2), 38-49. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.300
Abstract
Background: Everyone, irrespective of age, sex, colour, ethnicity, or present overall fitness level, can benefit from regular exercise. To improve one's health, one must engage in regular physical activity. People with underlying illnesses like long-term impairment can benefit from regular physical activity at the individual level, especially young women. Thus,
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Background: Everyone, irrespective of age, sex, colour, ethnicity, or present overall fitness level, can benefit from regular exercise. To improve one's health, one must engage in regular physical activity. People with underlying illnesses like long-term impairment can benefit from regular physical activity at the individual level, especially young women. Thus, the current study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of physical activity among female school-aged adolescents in the West Coast Region of The Gambia. Methods: The present study used an institutional-based cross-sectional analytical study to collect quantitative data from 384 female high school students in The Gambia. The study used a content-validated, pretested structured questionnaire that consisted of both open and closed-ended questions on physical activity. The data were processed and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 26.0. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square and/or Fisher exact test were used with a p-value <0.15 for inclusion in the logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, while p-value <0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Results: The proportion of female students involved in physical activity was 37.5%. The mean age of students was 18.8 years with a standard deviation of 1.7 years. Factors such as female students between 17 – 20 years (aOR:3.05, 95% C.I. (1.807 – 5.138)), father never been to school (aOR: 2.82, 95% C.I. (1.495 – 5.334)), primary education (aOR: 2.15, 95% C.I. (1.027 – 4.493)), upper basic school (aOR: 2.31, 95% C.I. (1.055 – 5.074)) and science major students (aOR: 2.21, 95% C.I. (1.203 – 4.047)) had increased odds of involving in PA. Furthermore, students who knew that exercise would strengthen bones (aOR: 2.62, 95% C.I (1.444 – 4.739)), do a planned brisk walking (aOR: 19.16, 95% C.I. (6.698 – 54.811)), basketball/football (aOR: 29.76, 95% C.I. (10.004 – 88.512)) and skipping with rope (aOR: 29.15, 95% C.I. (9.726 – 87.333)) had increased odds to involved in PA after controlling for confounders. Other factors such as students whose mother never been to school (aOR: 0.31, 95% C.I. (0.140 – 0.674)), primary level (aOR: 0.25, 95% C.I. (0.123 – 0.518)), senior secondary level (aOR: 0.42, 95% C.I. (0.189 – 0.935)), nuclear family (aOR: 0.23, 95% C.I. (0.119 – 0.458)) and extended family (aOR: 0.45, 95% C.I. (0.225 – 0.915)) had reduced odds of involving in PA. Conclusion: There is low physical activity among female adolescents in schools. For this, it is imperative that suitable interventions be implemented to raise the level of physical activity among secondary school students. A future intervention for school-aged adolescents could benefit from these findings.Full article
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Open Access June 4, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Women’s socio-demographic and cultural factors influencing unmet need for family planning in rural areas of The Gambia: Evidence from a population-based analytical cross-sectional study

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(2), 50-68. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.304
Abstract
Background: Reproductive health is a critical component of overall health and development. Unmet contraceptive needs are one of the regularly cited measures of the efficacy of family planning (FP) initiatives. This study set out to determine the magnitude and associated factors of unmet need for FP among women of reproductive-aged
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Background: Reproductive health is a critical component of overall health and development. Unmet contraceptive needs are one of the regularly cited measures of the efficacy of family planning (FP) initiatives. This study set out to determine the magnitude and associated factors of unmet need for FP among women of reproductive-aged (15-49 years) in the provincial areas of The Gambia. Methods: The study used a community-based cross-sectional analytical design. A multistage sampling strategy, comprising simple random and cluster sampling, was utilized to obtain a sample of 643 childbearing women (15-49 years) from rural Gambia's sampled clusters. Data collection was conducted using pre-tested structured interview questionnaires. The association was examined using chi-square/fisher's exact test with a significance level of p<0.05. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the effect of sociodemographic and cultural determinants on unmet FP need, with corresponding computed adjusted odds ratios (aOR). IBM SPSS version 24 was used for data entry and analysis. Results: The unmet need for FP among the study participants was 25.2%; unmet need for spacing and unmet need for limiting was 17.4% and 7.8%, respectively. The total demand for FP was 59.4%, while the satisfaction of demand for FP was 57.6%. The significant predictors of unmet need for FP were woman’s age at first pregnancy (aOR=0.899, p=0.033), LGA of origin (aOR=0.240, p=0.001) and frequency of using contraceptives (aOR=1.587, p=0.032). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a high unmet need for FP among rural women in The Gambia, with the most often cited reason for non-use being fear of side effects. Hence, it is necessary to concentrate FP services for rural populations, stressing education regarding contraceptive side effects, service quality, and gender equality. Additionally, the study suggests that male participation and religious leaders' involvement in FP programs be strengthened and mainstreamed, as well as the establishment of a communication program that specifically promotes inter-spousal communication.Full article
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Open Access August 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Epidemiological and Clinical Profile of Deaths due to COVID-19 among Hospitalized Patients in Sidama Region, Ethiopia

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(2), 69-77. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.402
Abstract
Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which started in China's Hubei province in 2019, has caused a significant loss of human lives globally. This study describes the epidemiologic and clinical profiles of COVID-19 related deaths among patients admitted to treatment centers in Sidama region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study of 186
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Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which started in China's Hubei province in 2019, has caused a significant loss of human lives globally. This study describes the epidemiologic and clinical profiles of COVID-19 related deaths among patients admitted to treatment centers in Sidama region, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study of 186 in hospital COVID-19 related deaths that occurred from July 2020 to December 2021 in Sidama region were analyzed. Data was extracted from regional emergency operation center death report. Data was entered using Epidata v3.1 and analysis was done using SPSS v.20. Categorical data was summarized using frequency and percentage while continuous data was summarized using median and interquartile range. Association between variables was assessed using chi-square test. More than two-third of the deceased patients were male (135; 72.6%) and median age at death was 60. The majority of deaths (151; 81.1%) occurred in 2021, while April 2021 had the highest death records. Cough and shortness of breath were the main presenting symptoms occurring in 89.2% and 85.5% of deceased patients respectively. Most of the COVID-19 related deaths (64.5%) had associated comorbidities. Diabetes (50%) and Hypertension (39.2%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. Significant proportion of patients (74.73%) presented on severe end of disease spectrum (critical/ severe). Of the deceased patients, around two-third required Intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 111 of them were put on mechanical ventilator. Moreover, the median ICU stay was 4 days. Around half of the death (48.4%) occurred in the first 5 days. The median survival time from symptom onset was 11.5 days with most (43.5%) of the deaths occurring within the first 14 days of symptom onset. Age category was significantly associated with the number of days from onset to death (p=0.006). The case fatality rate was 1.87% which is lower than national and global reports. Unlike previous studies, the prevalence of asthma among deceased patients was low and there were no patients with documented COPD.Full article
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Open Access March 26, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Role of Ivermectin in Management of COVID-19

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2022, 2(2), 36-37. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2022.238
Abstract
The pandemic corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by (SARS-CoV-2) a single stranded-RNA virus, has been spread rapidly worldwide with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Few months after the spread of the pandemic, few medications have proven to be efficient in human clinical trials. Several antiviral drugs have been
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The pandemic corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by (SARS-CoV-2) a single stranded-RNA virus, has been spread rapidly worldwide with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Few months after the spread of the pandemic, few medications have proven to be efficient in human clinical trials. Several antiviral drugs have been used outside the scope of their initial medical use, such as lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine or azithromycin. Recent researches were done to show the efficacy of ivermectin in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA within 2 days. The use of ivermectin in in vitro studies has proven its efficacy against Corona virus. Based on the potency of ivermectin in in vitro studies, various clinical trials including patients infected with COVID-19 have been started; most of them have not been completed yet. Since the way how the virus infects the cells in vitro and in vivo is different, a decisive comment about how the ivermectin could exactly be beneficial to the patients has not been proven yet. Nevertheless, if ivermectin is compared to the other therapeutic treatments available for COVID-19 management, ivermectin has proved to have leverage over them. New randomized controlled clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of ivermectin the management of COVID-19 are strongly and urgently needed.Full article
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ISSN: 2770-8675
DOI prefix: 10.31586/gjeid
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