Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences

Journal profile

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences provides a forum for sharing timely and up-to-date publication of scientific research and review articles. The journal publishes original laboratory methods, industrial design, related technical tools, and methods-oriented review articles on all aspects of biomedical and life sciences. JBLS is dedicated to working with leading medical, clinical and life sciences research organisations to develop new technologies to support breakthrough biomedical and clinical research.

Latest Articles

Open Access January 1, 2023 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Analysis of D- and L- Isomers of (Meth)amphetamine in Human K2EDTA Plasma

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 2023, 3(1), 1-12. DOI: 10.31586/jbls.2023.534
Abstract
Methamphetamine and its metabolite amphetamine are frequently abused drugs. Whether obtained legally or from clandestine laboratories it is of relevance to determine the chiral makeup of these drugs for investigative purpose. Although urine and oral fluid matrices are commonly offered, less available to independent laboratories are techniques to verify dextro
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Methamphetamine and its metabolite amphetamine are frequently abused drugs. Whether obtained legally or from clandestine laboratories it is of relevance to determine the chiral makeup of these drugs for investigative purpose. Although urine and oral fluid matrices are commonly offered, less available to independent laboratories are techniques to verify dextro (D-) or levo (L-) (meth)amphetamine from human K2EDTA plasma. This paper outlines the development and validation of a method that includes the addition of internal standard and a two-step liquid-liquid extraction to remove the analytes from human K2EDTA plasma by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The assay was validated according to the United States Food and Drug Administration and College of American Pathologists guidelines, including assessment of the following parameters in plasma validation samples: linear range, limit of detection, lower limit of quantitation, matrix effects, inter- and intra-day assay precision and accuracy, carry over, linearity of dilution, matrix effects and stability. The outcome is a validated and reliable method for the determination of D- and L- isomer concentration of meth(amphetamine) human plasma samples that can be easily adopted by independent clinical laboratories.Full article
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Open Access December 8, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Antibacterial Activity of Phyllanthus Amarus (Schum and Thonn) Extract Against Salmonella Typhi Causative Agent of Typhoid Fever

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 2022, 2(1), 7-19. DOI: 10.31586/jbls.2022.561
Abstract
The study was conducted to assess the antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) extract against Salmonella typhi causative agent of typhoid fever at the laboratories of the Departments of Chemistry and Theoretical and Applied Biology of the College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi.
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The study was conducted to assess the antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus amarus (Schum and Thonn) extract against Salmonella typhi causative agent of typhoid fever at the laboratories of the Departments of Chemistry and Theoretical and Applied Biology of the College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi. The objectives were to determine the highest yield of crude extract of P. amarus using different proportions of water to ethanol and to determine the sensitivity of Salmonella typhi to these. Three different extraction procedures were carried out. In the first procedure, seven extraction setups each containing different proportions of the two extract (water and ethanol) were used with 10g of the plant sample. In the second procedure, eight setups were used for the two solvents. Ten grams of both fresh and dry plant sample were extracted in two different 200ml of water and in another two different 200ml of water; 20g of both fresh and dry plant sample were again extracted. The same procedure was repeated using ethanol as the solvent. In the third procedure, 10g each of fresh plant sample were boiled in 100ml and 200ml of water for 30 minutes. A sensitivity test to determine the zones of inhibition for the various plant extracts was done on Salmonella typhi isolated from human. Results from the crude yield of P. amarus using water only had the highest crude yield of 2.57g, followed by ethanol only which was 2.52g. The sensitivity studies conducted on the fresh P. amarus indicated that aqueous extract of P. amarus inhibited S. typhi to a zone of 5.00mm in 10g/200ml and 7.17mm in 20g/200ml. Ethanol extract also recorded an inhibition zone of 2.67mm and 5.33mm in 10g/200ml and 20g/200ml respectively. Again, sensitivity studies using dry P. amarus samples showed that the aqueous extracts recorded a zone of inhibition of 7.33mm in 10g/200ml and 13.50mm in 20g/200ml. Also ethanol extracts also recorded an inhibition zone of 6.83mm in 10g/200ml and 10.50mm in 20g/200ml. Significant differences were observed among the extracts and the control in both 10g/200ml and 20g/200ml concentrations (P<0.05). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of P. amarus proved inhibitory to S. typhi.Full article
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Open Access May 21, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

State of knowledge and challenges in the control and eradication of Onchocerciasis in Africa: a mini scoping review

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 2022, 2(1), 1-6. DOI: 10.31586/jbls.2022.303
Abstract
Background: Onchocerciasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus. Given the high morbidity and mortality, onchocerciasis control gained great attention from many stakeholders both nationally and internationally. However, there are still the need for further solidified commitments and compelling initiatives across concerned stakeholders
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Background: Onchocerciasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus. Given the high morbidity and mortality, onchocerciasis control gained great attention from many stakeholders both nationally and internationally. However, there are still the need for further solidified commitments and compelling initiatives across concerned stakeholders including regional bodies in the fight toward controlling its burden and risks. Thus, this review briefly appraised the current understanding and dynamics in the control and eradication efforts of Onchocerciasis in Africa. Methods: A rapid scoping review was used for this paper. Key databases used for this study include Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Google Scholar to identify a series of relevant peer-reviewed publications. The search contained just English-language articles. In addition, African government websites and specialized organizations such as WHO, UNAIDS, CDC, etc. were accessed and reviewed to gather important data on national and international control programs, related documentation and consultative expert reports. Results: In Africa, long-standing strides toward the control and elimination measures for onchocerciasis were conducted for several decades. Between 1974 to 2002, OCP had actively led the control and containment efforts for onchocerciasis in the context of 11 West Africa. However, endemic regions and states have switched their policies from controlling to eradication, with the ultimate objective of preventing their territories from parasite spread. Some key challenges are the insufficient identification of all endemic areas, high prevalence of both onchocerciasis and loiasis, potential development of resistance to ivermectin, inconsistent initiatives to address cross-border problems, disagreements and social disturbance. Various challenges, however, impede current efforts to eradicate African onchocerciasis. Conclusion: In the last decades, extensive measures have been taken with specialized state programs, largely efficient in high endemic nations, to manage and control onchocerciasis in African regions. The implications of these and other difficulties at country level control programs must therefore be identified and country-specific contextual remedies used to expedite the elimination of onchocerciasis.Full article
Mini Review
Open Access December 18, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Phytochemical Analysis and Evaluation of Bioactivities of Cola acuminata Extracts

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 2021, 1(1), 51-65. DOI: 10.31586/jbls.2021.166
Abstract
Background: From centuries of evolution, knowledge and technological progress for mankind to one day rediscover nature. Currently, the control of bacterial infections is becoming complex due to the concern of antibiotic resistance, which has been a significant global health problem. The aim was to determine and compare phytochemical constituents and
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Background: From centuries of evolution, knowledge and technological progress for mankind to one day rediscover nature. Currently, the control of bacterial infections is becoming complex due to the concern of antibiotic resistance, which has been a significant global health problem. The aim was to determine and compare phytochemical constituents and in the in vitro evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of aqueous, methanol, acetate, dichloromethane extracts from Cola acuminata nuts grown in the Nord Ubangi Province, DRC. Methods: The nuts of Cola acuminata were harvested in April 2016 at Yakoma city, Nord-Ubangi, DRC. The microscopic features of this species were performed in order to identify specific histological structures. Three bacterial strains notably Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeroginosa ATCC 9027 were used for the assessment of the antibacterial activity. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening were used for compound identification using different fractions and fractions which presented a good extraction yield was used for further analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using ABTS and DPPH scavenging tests while the antibacterial activity was performed using the diffusion method. Findings: The micrography of C. acuminata revealed the presence of following histological elements of which: fibers, spiral vessels, trichomes, ovoid starch grains, sclerenchyma and the fragments of endosperm. Only the methanol and aqueous extracts presented a good extraction yield. The phytochemistry shows the presence of flavonoids, anthocyanins, terpenes, iridoids and tannins. All fractions showed IC50 values lower than 10 µg/mL in the ABTS test and lower than 100 µg/mL in the DPPH test. The antibacterial activity of this plant was low against the three strains used. Conclusion: Seeing the potency of C. acuminata and different biological activities displayed, further analysis are required in order to identify and purify the active ingredients, to study the toxicity of cell lines in vitro, to perform the in vivo experiments and to test for other activities such as the anti-hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory.Full article
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Open Access September 25, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Micrographic Profiling and Phytochemical Analysis of Some Plants Consumed by Okapia johnstoni (Giraffidae: Mammalia) in Democratic Republic of the Congo

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 2021, 1(1), 38-50. DOI: 10.31586/jbls.2021.131
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical composition and micrographic charac-teristics of the plants consumed by Okapia johnstoni. The results indicate that each plant species has characteristic microscopic elements for its identification. These plants are rich in phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, coumarins, terpenoids and iridoids. Alchornea
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The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical composition and micrographic charac-teristics of the plants consumed by Okapia johnstoni. The results indicate that each plant species has characteristic microscopic elements for its identification. These plants are rich in phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, coumarins, terpenoids and iridoids. Alchornea cordifolia is richer in total polyphenols (198.53±3.39 mg GAE/g DM) followed respectively by Musanga cer-copioides (91.87±6.71 mg GAE/g DM), Macaranga spinosa (59.65±6.54 mg GAE/g DM), Ficus val-lis-choudae (46.37±2.43 mg GAE/g DM), Cola acuminata (38.83±4.04 mg GAE/g DM), Pycnanthus angolensis (31.96±3.45 mg GAE/g DM), Alstonia boonei (31.55±1.60 mg GAE/g DM) and Trilepisium madagascariensis (25.18±0.99 mg GAE/g DM). As for flavonoids, the highest content is obtained in T. madagascariensis followed respectively by A. boonei, Pycnanthus angolensis, Cola acuminata, M. spinosa, F. vallis-choudae, M. cercopioides and A. cordifolia. The difference in the content of secondary me-tabolites is justified by the fact that their expression in the plant is a function of both abiotic and biotic factors and the specificity of each plant species linked to its genetic make-up. The charac-terization of these chemical compounds is necessary for the formulation of herbal medicines for the management of Okapi ex situ or for human health. Also, the microscopic profiles of the leaves powder of the studied plant species provide relevant information, which may be helpful for the plant authentication and for quality control of raw material.Full article
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Open Access August 14, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Genes of Gall 200C and Nematode 200C May Develop Biomedical Vaccines Against Plants and COVID-19 Diseases: Advanced Medical Science Technology Agriculture Health Issues

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 2021, 1(1), 22-37. DOI: 10.31586/jbls.2021.010103
Abstract
The outbreaks and quick spread of severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have badly affected the whole world due to continuous emergence-and-transmission of the latest-new viral-genomes forming new-variants revealing patterns of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak-and-global-pandemic with badly affecting advanced-medical-science-technology-communication-agriculture-agronomy-plant-breeding-horticulture, health-environment-socio-economy, and different-issues. India's emphasis on okra, the ‘Nature's-Gift
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The outbreaks and quick spread of severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have badly affected the whole world due to continuous emergence-and-transmission of the latest-new viral-genomes forming new-variants revealing patterns of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak-and-global-pandemic with badly affecting advanced-medical-science-technology-communication-agriculture-agronomy-plant-breeding-horticulture, health-environment-socio-economy, and different-issues. India's emphasis on okra, the ‘Nature's-Gift to Human-Disease-Free-Healthy-Life’ and the most ‘Economically-Important-Number-One-Consumption Vegetable-Crops’ is destroyed by various-diseases causing pathogens like the root-knot (RK)-diseases caused by the nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, and easily checked by many chemical-pesticides. But it causes different carcinogenic effects on the environment and our life. So it is an urgent need to develop potential biomedicines. The pretreatments with ultra-high-diluted-biomedicines (UHDBMs) Gall 200C and Nematode 200C, prepared from okra-root-galls (ORG) and nematode-females (NF) respectively, applied by foliar spray@ 20 ml/plant, are highly effective against the root-knot-disease of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Cv. Ankur-40, with the increasing growth of plants and fruits-production. The UHDBMs-Gall 200C is more effective than the Nematode 200C. Both the pretreatments-UHDBMs are responsible for induce-systemic-acquired-defense-response of the pretreated-plants through the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR)-proteins-genes (22-14 numbers), which are more or less similar-molecular-range (295kD-11kD) of many coronavirus, which will be responsible for preventing-RK and COVID-19 like virus-diseases by inducing-defense-resistance or increasing innate-immunity respectively, and advanced in medical-science, technology, communication, agriculture, agronomy, plant breeding, horticulture, health, environment, socio-economy, and different application-issues with pollution-free globe, developing new-preventive typical-biomedical vaccines or treatments methods or drug development and research against the ‘21st-Century Global Pandemic COVID-19 like Any Viral Diseases’ which lead to optimal contributions to the field of policymaking drug and vaccine development emphasizing new or important aspects of the study, and synthetic production of UHDBMs will be more practical implications, and social implications in the future research. And the farmers and the world would be benefitted most; by collecting and uprooting gall-roots after harvesting for cost-effective bio-controlling plant-diseases, and profit from shelling-and-buying of whole plants, fruits, and gall-roots also, and helps for the benefit of global health by developing the most cost-effective, personalized, non-toxic, easily-preparable, easily-maintainable, easily-available and suppliable, vaccines or treatments methods from their own product.Full article
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Open Access August 12, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Minimal Invasive Extracorporeal Circulation (MiECC) in Car-diac Surgery: A Narrative Review

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 2021, 1(1), 15-21. DOI: 10.31586/jbls.2021.010102
Abstract
The heart remained a mystery for many years and was considered surgically untouchable. With the use of extracorporeal circulation, there has been a revolution in this area. Due to its mechanical components and interactions with blood, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause significant changes in the body. Factors such as contact
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The heart remained a mystery for many years and was considered surgically untouchable. With the use of extracorporeal circulation, there has been a revolution in this area. Due to its mechanical components and interactions with blood, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause significant changes in the body. Factors such as contact between artificial materials and blood, continuous flow, hemodilution, hypothermia and anticoagulation affect all organs during CPB, and may result in various complications. The minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation (MiECC) system was developed to minimize the contact of blood with air and foreign surfaces during conventional CPB. In addition, the biocompatibility of the components that make up the MiECC circuits increased, which reduced the inflammatory response. The absence of a venous reservoir and shorter lines allow the prime volume to be used to decrease, which also reduces the damage to the blood elements, and consequently, the need for blood transfusion. The MiECC system also has its downsides, the most important one being the difficulty in removing the air that can enter through the venous line, the impairment of the pump function, and embolization. During the use of these systems, perfusion safety and communication with the whole team must be at the highest level. In line with this information, the use of these systems can become standard in cardiac surgery with new technological additions.Full article
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Review Article
Open Access August 9, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Optimization and Prediction of Biodiesel Yield from Moringa Seed Oil and Characterization

Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences 2021, 1(1), 1-14. DOI: 10.31586/jbls.2021.010101
Abstract
In this study, oil was extracted from Moringa seed using mechanical and solvent methods. To transesterify the oil into biodiesel, factorial design of experiment of 24 was used to obtain different combination factors at different level of reaction temperature, catalyst amount, reaction time and alcohol to oil ratio, giving rise
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In this study, oil was extracted from Moringa seed using mechanical and solvent methods. To transesterify the oil into biodiesel, factorial design of experiment of 24 was used to obtain different combination factors at different level of reaction temperature, catalyst amount, reaction time and alcohol to oil ratio, giving rise to 48 experimental runs. The oil sample was transesterified in 48 experimental runs, in each case the biodiesel yield was recorded in percentage. The biodiesel was then characterized according to ASTM test protocol. Factorial design model was developed using Design Expert 7.0, the model generated R of 0.987 and Mean Square Error (MSE) of 5.0453 and was used to predict and optimize biodiesel yield. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model from MATLAB R2016a was developed using 4 input variables and 30 runs, the remaining 18 runs were tested with the ANN model to predict and compare the biodiesel yield with the experimental biodiesel yield, the model generated R value of 0.99687 and MSE of 3.50804. It was found that solvent method yielded more oil than mechanical method, the biodiesel has good thermo-physical property, optimum biodiesel yield of 91.45 % was obtained at 5:1 alcohol/ oil molar ratio, 18.89 wt% catalyst amounts, 45 minutes reaction time and at 45 reaction temperature. The experimental validation yielded 88.33 % biodiesel. The ANN model adequately predicted the remaining 18 runs with R2 value of 0.99649 and MSE of 4.914243. Both models proved adequate enough to predict biodiesel yield but ANN model proved more adequate.Full article
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ISSN: 2771-2303
DOI prefix: 10.31586/jbls
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