Research Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences

Volume 4, Number 1, 2024

Open Access June 30, 2024 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Phytostabilization of Total Monocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in Crude Oil-Contaminated Oxisol using Costus afer Plant

Research Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2024, 4(1), 50-60. DOI: 10.31586/rjees.2024.887
Abstract
Costus afer, a known medicinal plant used in the removal of total monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (TMAH) in crude oil-contaminated soil add to the list of plant that has the potential to restore the soil quality. This study investigated the potential of Costus afer plant at various ages (7, 14, 21,
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Costus afer, a known medicinal plant used in the removal of total monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (TMAH) in crude oil-contaminated soil add to the list of plant that has the potential to restore the soil quality. This study investigated the potential of Costus afer plant at various ages (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days old) to biodegrade crude oil-contaminated soil. The group-balanced block design (GBBD) was used in establishing the experiment. TMAH was quantified by the standard method, according to USEPA method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The contamination of 48kg of sandy loam soil was simulated by mixing 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5L of Bonny-Light crude oil with the soil in three separate vessels to achieve conditions of low (C1), medium(C2), and high(C3) contamination, respectively. An additional vessel with medium-level contaminated soil but no treatment (C4) served as the control. The Costus afer plants were nursed and transplanted at the stated ages to each vessel except the control. Controlled irrigation was applied, and the setups were housed to shield them from rainfall. After 90 days of treatment, results showed that the 7 days old Costus afer plants produced the highest amount of TMAH reduction of 96.5, 39.8, and 32.1%, for C1, C2 and C3, respectively, while the control (C4) was 9.45%. Furthermore, the sequence of TMAH reduction by the plants was 7 days old, 14 days old, 21 days old, 28 days old, 35 days old, and 42 days old. Thus, in addition to its medicinal value, Costus afer plant also has the potential to biodegrade TMAH in crude oil-contaminated sandy loam soil.Full article
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Open Access April 29, 2024 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Floristic composition of vascular epiphytes in a disturbed forest of the Douala- Edea National Park (Cameroon)

Research Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2024, 4(1), 29-42. DOI: 10.31586/rjees.2024.701
Abstract
The Douala-Edea National Park is a coastal protected area that opens to the Atlantic Ocean, and contains an abundant wildlife which finds a privilege habitat there, and certain taxa such as epiphytes, which are of particular interest for conservation. In many tropical forests, vascular epiphytes are one of the richest
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The Douala-Edea National Park is a coastal protected area that opens to the Atlantic Ocean, and contains an abundant wildlife which finds a privilege habitat there, and certain taxa such as epiphytes, which are of particular interest for conservation. In many tropical forests, vascular epiphytes are one of the richest taxa, with major impacts on the nutrient and hydrological cycles. The aim of this research was to study the effect of the disturbance of habitat on the floristic composition of vascular epiphytes in the Douala-Edea National Park. This study was carried out between January - April 2021 in three types of disturbed habitats at the northern part of the park. Three plots of 100 m × 100 m dimensions were laid out across three ecosystems along the Sanaga river. The sampling method consisted in the direct observation of five adjacent transects of 100 m x 20 m dimensions inside each plot. Epiphytes species were evaluated on all trees of DBH ≥10 cm. Epiphytes' life-forms and the position on the host trees occupied by the epiphytes were also recorded. A total of 18 species belonging to 16 genera and 13 families were identified. Culcasia sp. was the most common species with a relative frequency of 30.27%. Biological indicators were represented by Ferns, with four species, and Orchidaceae, with one species. The epiphytes species richness was highest in the low disturbed habitat (13 species), and lowest in the highly disturbed habitat (8 species). Strict epiphytes were highly recorded in the low disturbed habitat (6 species), and were absent in the highly disturbed habitat. Hemi-epiphytes were the commonest life-form (12 species) in the highly disturbed habitat, and have been defined as indicators of the perturbation of the habitat. Canopy was mostly sollicitated by epiphytes in the low disturbed habitat (66.25%) than the moderate disturbed habitat (49.85%), and highly disturbed habitat (30.66%). It has been found that the different forest sites have an influence on the typology of epiphytic species, and therefore, epiphytic flora should be managed for the conservation of the biodiversity in tropical forests.Full article
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Open Access April 25, 2024 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Green spaces more adapted and resilient to the current and future climatic conditions in the south of Portugal (Algarve): Xerophytic gardens using xeromorphic succulents

Research Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2024, 4(1), 16-28. DOI: 10.31586/rjees.2024.884
Abstract
Considering the current climate conjuncture, it is a consensus that green spaces in large contemporary urban areas should be increasingly more numerous and simultaneously more sustainable, being adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the site, and with reduced maintenance costs. In the case of Algarve, where this research is focused,
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Considering the current climate conjuncture, it is a consensus that green spaces in large contemporary urban areas should be increasingly more numerous and simultaneously more sustainable, being adapted to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the site, and with reduced maintenance costs. In the case of Algarve, where this research is focused, the current and future water availability, assumes a preponderant role in the design of green spaces, where the demands mentioned above can only be achieved if we deviate from conventional landscape practices and develop holistic strategies of management and design of green spaces that integrate different areas of knowledge and not merely aesthetic issues. In this context, this work aims to develop more adapted and resilient landscaping practices to the current and future climatic conditions of the Algarve, thus reinventing the concept of landscaping in the south of Portugal. Thus, it will be of paramount importance to develop more sustainable, resilient and tolerant projects to worsening ecological conditions, particularly limitations associated with water availability. The xeromorphic succulents are a group of plants with mechanisms of tolerance to water stress and with very specific characteristics, being succulence one of the most relevant. Studies on these mechanisms are increasingly frequent, which may prove to be very advantageous in our adaptation to future climatic challenges. In addition, their ornamental potential is enormous, since their bold forms and colours are a veritable sensory explosion, which, combined with their morphological and physiological characteristics, make them the species of choice in the reconversion or creation of xerophytic gardens.Full article
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Open Access March 8, 2024 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Analysis of Toxic Contaminants in Agriculture: Educational Strategies to Avoid Their Influence on Food

Research Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2024, 4(1), 1-15. DOI: 10.31586/rjees.2024.718
Abstract
A diagnosis of the current state of the crops is made regarding the control of weeds, use of pesticides, fungicides; with an assessment of the state of the plant covers in the crop, and its control by different types of herbicides, and we detected a high loss of biological diversity;
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A diagnosis of the current state of the crops is made regarding the control of weeds, use of pesticides, fungicides; with an assessment of the state of the plant covers in the crop, and its control by different types of herbicides, and we detected a high loss of biological diversity; and some of these compounds are mentioned due to their high toxicity. Similarly, the use of pesticides and fungicides is discussed due to their repercussions on health. In order to avoid the unhealthiness caused by the applications of these products, phytosanitary and educational control strategies are proposed; promoting the inspection of fruit and vegetable markets, and modifying the contents in higher professional and university education. To this end, we propose an active teaching methodology, through which the student acquires skills and responsibility for the use of chemical agents in agriculture, which serves to prevent the entry of these contaminants into the food chain. Of the different polluting chemical agents, in the case of herbicides we highlight Oxyfluorfen and Glyphosate with high toxicity and whose consumption is very high. In the case of pesticides and fungicides, among others are Organochlorine compounds, which have been detected in blood, and Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform, considered potent hepatotoxic and neurotoxic. The basic objective of this study is the awareness and acquisition of knowledge by future teachers about polluting agents, which will subsequently have an impact on society.Full article
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Open Access June 30, 2024 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Education as a health tool: Adulterations and falsifications in natural medicine

Research Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 2024, 4(1), 43-49. DOI: 10.31586/rjees.2024.819
Abstract
The teaching-learning relationship of natural medicine is key to avoid health problems in the population; adulterations and falsifications of frequently used plants are evident. The aim of this study is to raise public awareness and to urge institutions to incorporate contents in the student's curriculum. The curricula of different educational
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The teaching-learning relationship of natural medicine is key to avoid health problems in the population; adulterations and falsifications of frequently used plants are evident. The aim of this study is to raise public awareness and to urge institutions to incorporate contents in the student's curriculum. The curricula of different educational levels are analyzed to check the level of knowledge on the use of medicinal plants, as well as some regulations on quality controls. Of the wide range of species that are consumed by the population, some are detected in which adulterations and falsifications occur, although there is no danger in some cases, such as chamomiles, if a falsification occurs when consuming the whole plant instead of the flowering tops, which is where the properties reside. In other cases, adulteration occurs, generally unintentional, but very dangerous to health, such as horsetail. For a more effective quality control, we need public awareness and highly specialized personnel, with the capacity to inspect crops, markets and companies.Full article
Review Article
ISSN: 2770-5536
DOI prefix: 10.31586/rjees
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