Universal Journal of Food Security https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujfs <p>Universal Journal of Food Security(UJFS) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in related areas. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of food security.</p> en-US Universal Journal of Food Security Effect of Intercropping Maize and Beans on the Maize Yields in Isingiro Town Council, Isingiro District, South Western Uganda https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujfs/article/view/439 <p>The study aimed at determination of the effect of intercropping maize and beans on the maize yields Isingiro Town Council, Isingiro District, South Western Uganda. The study used a randomized complete block (RCBD) experiment in which 8 treatments in 4 replicas of each to make a total of 32 sub-plots. Two rows of maize spaced at 4.5cm within rows and 90cm between rows were intercropped with two rows of velvet beans spaced at 30cm with rows and 90cm between rows. Two rows of NABE16 spaced at 4.5cm within rows and 75cm between rows were intercropped with maize a pacing of 5.5cm within rows and 75cm between rows. Rows of beans were separated from those of maize by 75cm in a 10m by 8m sub-plot. The experiment was conducted in two seasons (March to May 2020 and August to November 2021). Standard agronomical practices were followed from planting to harvesting, after which dry maize grain weight was taken and recorded. Data analysis was done using ONE WAY ANOVA in STATA version 13. Results show that the significant statistical difference in season one (p = 0.0000)** was higher than that in season two (p = 0.0211)*. The study concluded that unpredictable (too much or too little) rainfall negatively affects maize productivity. Early planting and application of organic fertilizers were recommended to improve maize productivity.</p> Wycliffe Tumwesigye David Osiru Tesfaye Lemma Tefera Bobe Bedai Majaliwa Mwanjalolo Jackson-Gilbert Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Food Security 2022-12-26 2022-12-26 65 75 Preliminary Survey Analysis on Food Choices among Randomly Selected Social Media Users amidst COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujfs/article/view/261 <p>A survey on food choices with a randomized sample population of individuals using various social media in Nigeria was conducted during the COVID1-19 pandemic. The data generated was subjected to basic standard statistical analysis. The parameters indicated that 94% of the population is young adults, 58.9 % percent are city dwellers, 63.6% are students, 23.4 % are into business, 86.9% are graduates; 73.8% consume various diets, 23.4% are vegetarians and only 2.8% fed only on proteins, 30.8% of them go on two meals per day. The most choices on influence on food purchases decision are hunger (26.2%), mood (26.2%), past experience (45.8%), quality of the food products (66.7%), cost of the food products (50.5%) and government approval (28%). Also,other most preferred choices are for self-prepared food (40.21%), enhanced local diets (36 %), and a blend of foreign and local diets purchases (24%). Other highest choices include: easy preparation (37.4%), shelf life (29%); cute packaging (23.4%), swelling property preference (20.6%), minimal cooking time and energy preference (37.4%). The weighted sum, index and rank on factors influencing food choices showed that the influence of quality of food product ranked highest, followed by influence on cost. Also preference for enhanced local healthy diets to foreign ranked highest, minimal cooking time and energy costs ranked highest. These nutritional adaptations have implications to individuals, food scientists, manufacturers in the food industry, food regulatory agencies, government and other decision bodies.</p> Ehoche Edache Elijah Usman Garba Kurmi Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Food Security 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 Climate Change's Impact on Agriculture and Food Security: An Opportunity to Showcase African Animal Genetic Resources https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujfs/article/view/546 <p>One of the current issues facing humanity is ensuring sustained global food security in the face of devastating effects of climate change; this challenge is particularly pressing on the African continent. Here, I present an opinion piece identifying local animal genetic resources as "African leverage point" that provide the highest chances to cushion rural fork to climate change, enhance environmental sustainability and food security in Africa. When it comes to boosting food production, coping with climate change, or bolstering the delivery of a wide range of ecosystem services, I believe that African animal genetic resources are essential alternatives for the sustainable growth of the livestock industry and its contribution to food security. Africa needs to address the support and development of indigenous animal genetic resources in order to meet the basic food needs of more than 1 billion people, address numerous environmental issues with continental implications, and focus on more effective and resilient food systems with the greatest impact on food security. The indigenous animal resources diversity and support actions to this unique group could provide a boost in protein that is lacking to constitute healthy diets in Africa. The priorities of nonprofit organizations, foundations, governments, citizens' groups, and companies can be influenced by this leverage point in the African food system. Due to continuous food insecurity, which appears to be becoming worse with climate change and makes it even harder to accomplish the SDGs on the continent, Africa has paid a hefty price for being misled about the worth of its own animal genetic resources. To the contrary, it is highly improbable that a strategy to improve food security and rural livelihoods that undermines the utilization of indigenous animal genetic resources will be viable in long-term. If Africa makes an effort, is committed, and fully commits resources to putting indigenous animal genetic resources at the forefront of combating food insecurity and accelerating the achievement of SDGs, it can achieve more under the adverse prevailing climate change induce environmental conditions. Our personal opinion is that we would not have had the ongoing food problems, even in the face of climate change, if Africa had over the years implemented the necessary mechanisms to develop and promote local animal genetic resources. What lies ahead in terms of climate change effect on food security in Africa is anyone's guess – but whatever it is, promoting continental adapted indigenous animal genetic resources portfolio is ready to handle it. Development and promotion of African animal genetic resources should be part of a continental strategy to transform smallholder animal production by 2050, in line with the goals of achieving the SGDs, to improve rural household food security, and bringing rural economy prosperity, resilience, sustainability, and all other desired animal related food outcomes for rural healthy diets. African animal genetic resources are the most important but underutilized resource to address the issue of ongoing food insecurity. The responsible use of local animal genetic resources through climate smart animal husbandry practices also contributes to food security, rural development and increased employment opportunities. African genetic improvement programs involving indigenous animal genetic resources must be considered as regards to local agriculture and livestock development aspirations, appropriateness to local reality and livelihood security, as well as environmental friendliness. Animal agriculture will fill in the enormous gaps in the continent's food supply if this animal group receives adequate attention and is used integrated properly in crop and livestock systems which characterize smallholder farming sector in Africa. Because they have evolved over time to accommodate the various climatic conditions and environmental pressures on the continent, Africa's native animal genetic resources are particularly resilient. Indirectly, the impact of climate change offers a chance to use native animal genetics from Africa. The use of local animal genetic diversity has the potential to substantially improve Africa's food security landscape hence should be given special consideration for sociocultural, environmental, and economic aspects, and with regard for smallholder farmer-specific factors of interest. African animal genetic resources have contributed significantly to the food and nutrition security aspects of the millions of people in their communities of origin and custody in Africa. The purpose of the perception piece is to educate the reader about the fundamental mechanisms that control the use of continental animal genetic resources and how the outlook for these mechanisms can be manipulated in the future for the benefit of improving food security in Africa. The discussion provides in-depth insight into the pertinent literature in understanding the significance of local animal genetic resources in terms of their contribution to food security in Africa.</p> Never Assan Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Food Security 2022-12-23 2022-12-23 40 64 It’s time for reimagining the future of food security in sub–Saharan Africa: Gender-Smallholder Agriculture-Climate Change nexus https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujfs/article/view/504 <p>There is an ongoing debate regarding how to feed Sub-Saharan Africa's fast rising population in the long run, as well as the implications for food security. To maintain food security, various strategies have been recommended, including a focus on the significance of diversifying and improving people's diets. Proposals have been tabled elsewhere with a primary focus on enhancing agricultural inputs and technology adoption in order to increase agricultural production and productivity, hence strengthening food security. The current opinion piece attempts to contribute to this debate by examining smallholder agriculture and its role to African food security. This discussion proposes a future paradigm shift toward a gendered climate-smart smallholder agriculture and food production and security conceptual framework based on the promotion and development of smallholder agriculture and food production and security. Therefore, it's predicated that the micro-livestock-centered approach can remodel smallholder agrarian households and communities toward a gender-inclusive global climate change adaptive smallholder agriculture to strengthen production, supply, and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. For Africa, today’s predicament is to ensure food security for the anticipated rapid population expansion, while on the other hand handling an overall net adverse effect of worldwide global climate change, and increased socio-economic ills associated with gender inequality in smallholder agriculture and ensuring long-term agriculture sustainable development. The failure to address gender inequality in smallholder agriculture and food production and pontificate of global climate change effect has thrown Sub-Saharan Africa into a state of perpetual food scarcity and insecurity because of low agricultural productivity and food supply, and by force of circumstances exposing the agricultural communities and its people to extreme poverty and nutrition and food insecurity. Therefore, it's predicated that the micro-livestock-centered approach can remodel smallholder agrarian households and communities toward a gender-inclusive global climate change adaptive smallholder agriculture to strengthen production, supply, and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. For this purpose, this discussion proposes a future paradigm shift towards a gendered climate-smart smallholder agriculture and food production and security conceptual framework hinged on the promotion and development of the micro-livestock and/or unconventional animal species sub-sector to strengthen food security on the continent. Overall, the discussion emphasizes the importance of taking immediate action to alleviate the negative effects of climate change and address gender inequality through promotion of micro livestock to assist in the development of long-term adaptation measures to maintain smallholder agricultural productivity.</p> Never Assan Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Food Security 2022-12-28 2022-12-28 76 95 Climate Change Impact on Small-Scale Animal Agriculture: Livestock Water & Food Security in Africa https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujfs/article/view/541 <p>Water is essential for food security and animal agricultural productivity, but it is becoming more scarce due to climate change. The interaction between climate change and livestock water resources has received little attention from researchers, despite the significance of small-scale animal husbandry for the rural poor in Africa and the size of the changes that are anticipated to have an impact on smallholder livestock systems. Threats to livestock water are undoubtedly one of the most significant environmental issues that have impacted food security on the continent, given their links to small-scale animal husbandry and the detrimental impacts on productivity. In order to balance the negative effects of climate change scenarios for sustainable animal productivity and contribute to food security through small-scale animal agriculture, the most climate-smart and resilient agricultural water practices and technologies must be used. Changes in rainfall and a decline in the biomass available for grazing and rangelands as a result of water stress brought on by the climate would have the most severe effects. This is due to the rain-fed nature of small-scale livestock farming. The local animal genetic resources are essential for animal productivity and food security in Africa, particularly in areas where livestock water is becoming scarce owing to climate change. Research and development goals on the effects of climate change on livestock water, animal productivity, and food security may need to be reviewed if demands of vulnerable small-scale animal producers are to be successfully addressed in the future decades. It is best to use an interdisciplinary approach to comprehend the relationships between small-scale animal husbandry, food security, and climate change. By navigating the complexities of climate adaptation, small-scale livestock farmers can manage livestock water scarcity by taking adaptation measures that are in line with evolving climate impacts and associated means of implementation based on pertinent and useful knowledge that takes into account a blend of traditional and modern water science. In this paper, an effort is made to close some significant information gaps and shed light on how water-induced stress impacts small-scale animal production, which has an effect on food security.</p> Never Assan Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Food Security 2022-12-22 2022-12-22 13 39