Universal Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujgh <p>Universal Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology(UJGH) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancement in Gastroenterology and Hepatology. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.</p> en-US Universal Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Role of Probiotics and Colchicine in COVID-19 Management? https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujgh/article/view/772 <p>New cohort studies and randomized controlled clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of probiotics and Colchicine in the management of COVID-19 are strongly and urgently needed.</p> Samar Osama Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Nour El-Din Hassan Manal Sabry Mohamed Mina Mikhail Nessim Mohamed Nabil Badawy Al Ashram Mohamed Farouk Allam Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 14 16 Effectiveness of Probiotics for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujgh/article/view/735 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Recently specific interactions and crosslinks between the gut microbiota and the lungs have been recognized, particularly with regard to respiratory immune and anti-microbial reactions. This is often known as the “gut-lung axis” or “a common mucosal immunological system”.<strong> Objective: </strong>The aim of the current systematic review was to evaluate evidence, from published clinical trials and cohort studies, if probiotics may have an effect in improving and managing COVID-19 symptoms.<strong> Materials and methods: </strong>The available studies were searched through a comprehensive search of electronic databases that included PubMed, Science Direct, Scirus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), using a combination of the following keywords: “COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" AND "Microbiota" OR "Probiotics” OR “Gut Lung Axis”. The literature was reviewed until August 31, 2022<strong>. Results: </strong>Only one clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in COVID-19 patients to obtain complete remission of all signs and symptoms. The clinical trial proves that probiotics have a significant effect on complete remission of all signs and symptoms of COVID-19 patients with statistical significant difference. Only one clinical trial out of the 3 included studies had evaluated the need for O2 therapy during the study between the probiotics and control groups, but without statistical significant difference<strong>. </strong>No statistical significant difference between the probiotics group and placebo group was observed regarding fatal prognosis during the only clinical trial that measured death as an outcome<strong>. Conclusion: </strong>We couldn’t judge on these results as they are insufficient data for pooling and meta-analysis. But what we can say is “Most probably Probiotics have no role in treatment of COVID-19 infection”.</p> Hadeer Abdel-Aleem Hassan Mohamed Nazmy Farres Farres Rasha Samir Mohamed Nabil Badawy Al Ashram Mina Michael Nesim Mohamed Farouk Allam Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 17 25 Individual Wave Component Signal Modeling, Parameters Extraction, and Analysis https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujgh/article/view/737 <p>The accurate estimation of Individual Wave Components (IWC) is crucial for automated diagnosis of the human digestive system in a clinical setting. However, this process can be challenging due to signal contamination by other signal sources in the body, such as the lungs and heart, as well as environmental noise. To address this issue, various denoising techniques are commonly employed in bowel sound signal processing. While denoising is important, it can increase computational complexity, making it challenging for portable devices. Therefore, signal processing algorithms often require a trade-off between fidelity and computational complexity. This study aims to evaluate an IWC parameter extraction algorithm that was previously developed and reconstruct the IWC without denoising using synthetic and clinical data. To that end, the role of a reliable model in creating synthetic data is paramount. The rigorous testing of the algorithm is limited by the availability of quality and quantity recorded data. To overcome this challenge, a mathematical model has been proposed to generate synthetic bowel sound data that can be used to test new algorithms. The proposed algorithm’s robust performance is evaluated using both synthetic and clinically recorded data. We perform time-frequency analysis of original and reconstructed bowel sound signals in various digestive system states and characterize the performance using Monte Carlo simulation when denoising is not applied. Overall, our study presents a promising algorithm for accurate IWC estimation that can be useful for predicting anomalies in the digestive system.</p> Webert Montlouis Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 26 39 Hepatic Histopathological Alterations induced by L-Arginine and/or Dexamethasone in Adult Male Albino Rats https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujgh/article/view/509 <p>The liver is critical organ for metabolic homeostasis and toxic substance clearance and plays an important role in the systemic response to critical illness. Acute panreatitis (AP) progresses with a local production of inflammatory mediators, eventually leading to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Knowing that almost all pancreatic mediators released from the pancreas to the blood stream may pass through the liver before their dilution in the systemic circulation, it would be reasonable to assume a determinant role of this organ in development of the inflammatory response associated with acute pancreatitis. <strong>Objectives:</strong> The study aimed to investigate the time courses of the effects of the exogenous glucocorticoids agonist dexamethasone on microscopical changes occurring in the liver of rats used as a model of AP induced by L-Arginine. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 60 adult male albino rats weighing 150-200 gm were used. They were divided into 3 groups: Control group: Which is also divided into 2 subgroups (a &amp; b) each of animals of the first were IM injected with 0.5ml/100gm B.W saline and those of second were injected by 0.5mg/100gm B.W dexamethasone. L-Arginine group: which received L-Arginine to induce AP. The animals of this group were divided into 3 subgroups a, b and c the animals of which were sacrificed 3 days, 2 weeks and 1 month after L-Arginine injection respectively. Dexamethasone and L-Arginine group: in which the animals were injected with both L-Arginine and dexamethasone. They were also divided into 3 subgroups a, b and c, the animals of which were sacrificed 3 days. 2 weeks, one month after the injection of the drugs. The liver of the scarified animals were dissected out and prepared for microscopical examination. <strong>Results:</strong> The histopathological changes that occurred in the livers of acute pancreatitis (AP) model animals started in the periphery of the classic hepatic lobules and progressively extended in a centripetal manner to involve all the cells of the lobules in the late period of the experiment. These changes were in the form of ballooning of the hepatocytes, progressive vacuolation of their cytoplasm most propably with fat globules and depletion of the PAS+ve glycogen granules. Injection of dexamethasone in AP model animals did not improve the case, but on the contrary it made the changes more intense, severe, and rapid. One month after injection of L-Arginine and dexamethasone, the hepatocytes all over the hepatic lobules were severely affected. They were markedly ballooned with severely vacuolated cytoplasm which was completely depleted from its PAS +ve glycogen granules, indicating severe fatty degeneration of the liver.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> From the previous data, it can be concluded that treatment of AP with dexamethasone is caused a late bad effect on the liver, where it causes its late fatty liver changes.</p> Marwan T. M. Abofila Azab Elsayed Azab Asma Nagib Ali Adel Salah El Din Zohdy Ghada Farouk Mohammed Azza Abdel Monaem Attia Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 1 13