Universal Journal of Sport Sciences

Journal profile

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences (UJSS) is a peer-reviewed open access journal, provides an international forum for the presentation of research findings and scholarly exchange in the area of Sports and Recreation. The journal has a special focus on sport science, recreation/leisure studies, exercise science and dance studies, human sciences, broadly defined, applied to sport and exercise. Although preference is given to manuscripts presenting the findings of original research, review and methodological pieces will also be considered.

Latest Articles

Open Access December 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Psychometric of the Dark Personality (Dark Triad) Instrument in Iranian Students

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2022, 3(1), 1-9. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2023.516
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the dark personality instrument in students of general physical education units of Mashhad universities. The participants include all students of Ferdowsi, Imam Reza, Islamic Azad, and Payame Noor universities who had chosen the units of general physical education and sport
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This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of the dark personality instrument in students of general physical education units of Mashhad universities. The participants include all students of Ferdowsi, Imam Reza, Islamic Azad, and Payame Noor universities who had chosen the units of general physical education and sport in the academic year of 2021-22, using the Morgan table, 196 people were randomly selected as a sample. A standard dark personality questionnaire (Jonason & Webster, 2010) was used to collect data. Cronbach's alpha test was used to confirm the reliability of the questionnaire. To confirm the instrument's validity, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used. Data analysis showed that the factor load of all items is higher than the baseline value (0.4) and the research model has a significant fit. Also, the model fit indices had acceptable values. Finally, it is recommended to sports coaches and teachers of physical education classes and leisure time to use this scale at the beginning of each semester to get to know more about the personality characteristics of students in their class and to measure these people, this can help them a lot in how to manage their classes.Full article
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Open Access December 12, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Effect of 8 Weeks of Physical Activity to Improve the Physical and Psychological State of 13 Women Under 30 Undergoing Treatment for Breast Cancer at the Saint Nicolas Clinic in Porto-Novo

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2022, 2(1), 39-54. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2022.494
Abstract
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in women. Several studies have shown the benefits of physical activity (PA) before and after treatment on the physical and psychological components of patients. Almost all of the studies mentioned are carried out on non-African patients over the age of
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Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in women. Several studies have shown the benefits of physical activity (PA) before and after treatment on the physical and psychological components of patients. Almost all of the studies mentioned are carried out on non-African patients over the age of 40. And no experimental studies have been carried out in young patients undergoing treatment for breast cancer. This is how we asked ourselves the question of whether a physical exercise program carried out on young Beninese women under the age of 30 undergoing treatment for breast cancer at the Saint Nicolas clinic in Porto-Novo could it have the same effects on their physical and psychological components? Our objective through this research is to study the potential effect of a physical activity program on the physical and psychological state in women under 30 years old (27±5.8 years) undergoing treatment for a breast cancer at the Saint Nicolas clinic in Porto-Novo. An experimental study was then carried out with 13 patients (very low rate of women in this section suffering from breast cancer) undergoing treatment throughout 2022 at the Saint Nicolas clinic in Porto-Novo. The experimental group followed a physical activity program consisting of aerobic and muscular exercises; over a period of 8 weeks. According to the data collected and the feedback from the patients, the physical activity program seems to have been beneficial for most of them. There is an improvement in the quality of life and the physical condition of the patients. In addition, the management of physical fatigue and psychological fatigue also seem to improve. There was also a marked improvement in the ability to concentrate and self-esteem. The physical activity program has improved the physical and psychological state of Beninese women with breast cancerFull article
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Open Access September 27, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Test and Measurement: US Army Combat Field Testing Protocol and Exploratory Analysis

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2022, 2(1), 34-38. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2022.431
Abstract
The importance of resistance training (Conley & Pennington, 2022; Pennington, 2020) cardiovascular fitness (Pennington, 2015; 2016), and anaerobic power (Pennington, 2014) cannot be overstated for individuals enlisted in our country’s armed forces. The Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) is the new branch wide fitness test designed to replace the outdated
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The importance of resistance training (Conley & Pennington, 2022; Pennington, 2020) cardiovascular fitness (Pennington, 2015; 2016), and anaerobic power (Pennington, 2014) cannot be overstated for individuals enlisted in our country’s armed forces. The Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) is the new branch wide fitness test designed to replace the outdated Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) (USAPHC TG 358, n.d.). The APFT was implemented in 1980 as the measure of Service Member (SM) fitness. However, this test is very limited in scope and failed to tell unit commanders how ready their SMs were for the rigors of a combat environment (US Army ACFT Field Testing Manual, n.d.). The APFT was a gender-based test that consisted of three events: a two-minute pushup evaluation to measure upper body endurance. The second event was a two-minute sit up evaluation to measure core and hip flexor endurance. While the final evaluation was a two-mile timed run, which was designed to test aerobic endurance and leg endurance. This test was simple to set up and administer but, it was not a good metric to judge SM’s actual fitness in a combat environment. If a SM had good endurance than he or she would max the test with ease. This is not a complete reflection of what is required in a combat environment. In a combat environment the SM will be loaded down with a rifle, helmet, rucksack, plate carrier, water, and ammo which often exceeds 80 pounds. The new ACFT which is still being implemented into the forces as of the writing of this paper is a much better test as it has more events to it which measure soldier strength and ability to move while under load.Full article
Protocol
Open Access August 20, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Student-Athlete Burnout: A Division I Women’s Soccer Coach’s Perspective

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2022, 2(1), 25-33. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2022.383
Abstract
With numerous unique physical, mental, psychological, and emotional challenges associated with being a university-level student-athlete, it can be assumed that student-athletes may be at great risk of mental health conditions such as burnout. Burnout results from the interaction of three different elements: physical or emotional exhaustion, sport devaluation, and reduced
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With numerous unique physical, mental, psychological, and emotional challenges associated with being a university-level student-athlete, it can be assumed that student-athletes may be at great risk of mental health conditions such as burnout. Burnout results from the interaction of three different elements: physical or emotional exhaustion, sport devaluation, and reduced athletic accomplishment. This study sought to answer the following research questions: (1) Why do student-athletes experience burnout in their sport?, and (2) What can be done to avoid burnout? using standard qualitative interviewing techniques of a Division I Women’s Soccer coach. There were two prominent themes answering research question 1: Perfection and Performative Social Media and It’s a Job and Coach is the Boss. There were three prominent themes identified answering research question 2: Parental Influence, De-Professionalize Amateur Sport, and Value Athletes’ Time. Where this work differs from other qualitative studies regarding athlete burnout, is that it explores the perceptions and opinions of a coach. The coach interviewed for this study clearly expressed concerns for his student-athletes and their holistic well-being. In addition to a continuation of scholarship through the student-athletes lens, more research conducted exploring the perspectives of coaches, parents, and institutional administrators in pursuit of solutions to mitigating the effect of burnout on student-athletes is of value.Full article
Research Article
Open Access May 20, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Prevailing Injuries among Senior High Students-Athletes in the Akuapem Municipality

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2022, 2(1), 16-24. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2022.276
Abstract
Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries such as Ghana. In identifying the prevailing injuries among senior high student-athletes in the Akuapem municipality, a descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 610 student-athletes were purposely selected for the study to respond
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Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries such as Ghana. In identifying the prevailing injuries among senior high student-athletes in the Akuapem municipality, a descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 610 student-athletes were purposely selected for the study to respond to the DEMASS inventory questionnaire regarding their opinion on the prevailing sports injuries. The results indicated that wounds (67.8%), knee injury (65.1%), muscle cramps (56.1%), and thigh injury (55.1%) were prevailing in S.H.S tournament than sprain (37.8%), strain (32.0%), dislocation (30.0%), fracture (31.3%), nose bleeding (31.3%) and groin injuries (23.1%). Participants who played more games professed that the number of games played contributed to sustaining sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding. Further studies should be carried out at other places and districts to uncover more about injuries sustained during high school sports competitions to minimize their occurrence.Full article
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Open Access April 23, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Variables Associated with Low Female Participation in College of Education Sports in Central, Western and Western North Regions of Ghana

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2022, 2(1), 1-15. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2022.274
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to examine factors associated with low female participation in colleges of education sports. The population of the study was made up of female colleges of education athletes from Central, Western and Western North Regions of Ghana. Purposive and simple random techniques were used to
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The purpose of the study was to examine factors associated with low female participation in colleges of education sports. The population of the study was made up of female colleges of education athletes from Central, Western and Western North Regions of Ghana. Purposive and simple random techniques were used to the colleges of education and the respondents for the study. All the all the six colleges of education were purposively sampled and sampling technique was used to select the one hundred and eighty (180) participants who participate in the College of Education Sports Association (CoESA) games and in the Central, Western and Western North Regions of Ghana were used for the study. The main instrument for the study was a self-structured questionnaire (r= 0.92) containing items based on a five-point Likert scale was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using frequencies, percentages and Chi-square test to determine the relationship among the factors. The study revealed that there is the need for college authorities and female coaches in the colleges of education to take care of female athletes and make adequate provision for more modern sports facilities and equipment to sustain their interest in sports participation. The study recommended that, that the coaches should be mindful of their approach to prospective sportswomen. It is also recommended that, various colleges of education should make a concerted effort to organize programmes and seminars regularly to educate females in the colleges on the career benefits of sports participation and iron out their misconceptions.Full article
Research Article
Open Access March 21, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Strength Training Guide for Personal Training Practitioners

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2022, 1(1), 33-42. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2022.252
Abstract
Resistance exercise is the performance of physical exercises designed to improve strength, muscular, endurance, hypertrophy, and neuromuscular efficiency with the use of weights (Braith & Stewart, 2006)[1]. Resistance exercise has long been utilized for its beneficial health qualities and propensity to elicit certain desired physiological changes (Fry, 2004)[2]. There has
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Resistance exercise is the performance of physical exercises designed to improve strength, muscular, endurance, hypertrophy, and neuromuscular efficiency with the use of weights (Braith & Stewart, 2006)[1]. Resistance exercise has long been utilized for its beneficial health qualities and propensity to elicit certain desired physiological changes (Fry, 2004)[2]. There has been a recent, and significant, increase in resistance exercise activity in American adults (NCHS, 2018)[3] attributable to factors such as autonomous compulsion and self fulfilment to extrinsic factors like health and physical appearance (Fisher et al., 2017; Heinrich et al., 2014; Ingledew & Markland, 2008)[4,5,6]. As such, there is an ever-increasing need for educational material regarding resistance exercise, its benefits, purpose, and manner in which it should be conducted. Purpose- to (a) provide resistance exercise-based educational material regarding the background and rationale behind resistance training; (b) to provide a specific resistance-based exercise program to elicit strength gain; (c) to provide individuals with the knowledge to safely and effectively engage in said program; and (d) to provide the participant with expected physiological adaptations to completing the program. Methods- Two 6-week, 5-day per week resistance exercise programs – with a brief nutritional guide accompaniment – are outlined for a hypothetical participant, age 25-40, of moderate experience with fitness training, and with the goal of strength gain and moderate fat loss as a secondary goal. Results- Anticipated benefits of the program include: increased maximal strength caused by training above 85% 1RM for 2-6 sets of 1-6 reps; increased synergistic muscle groups strength which will contribute to improved prime mover strength; hypertrophy of skeletal muscles throughout the body, induced by lifts of 67-85% 1 rep max (RM) for 3-6 sets of 6-12 reps and increased resting energy expenditure (basal metabolic rate) accompanied by improved body composition. Conclusion- Continued progression though this protocol with modifications to resistance include potential improved running speed, explosive power potential, and other anaerobic sport performance factors, as well as enhanced neuromuscular efficiency associated with increased prime mover force production capabilities.Full article
Protocol
Open Access February 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

How to Increase Customer Satisfaction by Beautifying Sports Facilities? What is the Key Role of Service Quality?

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2022, 1(1), 28-32. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2022.226
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the key role of service quality and beauty of sports facilities in increasing customer satisfaction. The research method is descriptive and correlational research. The statistical population of the study was 154188 organized athletes covered by sports insurance (103890 men, 50298 women) who
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the key role of service quality and beauty of sports facilities in increasing customer satisfaction. The research method is descriptive and correlational research. The statistical population of the study was 154188 organized athletes covered by sports insurance (103890 men, 50298 women) who were working in sports halls of Mazandaran province and according to Morgan table, 384 athletes were randomly selected by cluster Were. Aesthetic questionnaire, service quality and customer satisfaction were used to collect information. Data analysis was performed using Pearson test and structural equation modeling by SPSS24 and Amos structure analysis software. According to the research results, the indirect effect of aesthetics of sports venues on increasing customer satisfaction through service quality is significant. Managers can take effective steps to increase their presence and increase the income of gyms by using quality improvement strategies and customer satisfaction.Full article
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Open Access October 13, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Assessing the Locomotor and Object Control Skill Levels of Basic Pupils in Ghana: The Role of Physical Education

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2021, 1(1), 19-27. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2021.115
Abstract
Objective: The study employed a quasi- experimental design of a single group pre-test post-test. The purpose of the study was to assess the locomotor and object control skill development levels of 6-8-year-old basic school pupils in Kwahu Afram Plains South district of Ghana The target population for the study comprised
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Objective: The study employed a quasi- experimental design of a single group pre-test post-test. The purpose of the study was to assess the locomotor and object control skill development levels of 6-8-year-old basic school pupils in Kwahu Afram Plains South district of Ghana The target population for the study comprised all 6-8 years old primary school pupils in Tease in Kwahu Afram Plains in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Convenient and stratified sampling techniques were used to select 57 pupils made up of thirty-seven (37) boys and twenty (20) girls. The instrument used for this study was Test of Gross Motor development (TGMD-2). Descriptive frequencies were used to analyse the data. The study revealed that pupils demonstrated high level of perfection with reference to their locomotor skills in the various physical activities with most responses on their skill execution mostly ranked between often and always. The study also indicated that pupils were able to perform locomotor skill activities well. The study also concluded that pupils were not really equipped with motor skill and were not able to execute motor skill activities correctly during physical activities with responses on motor skill mostly ranked between rarely and often. It is recommended that lower and upper primary school teachers in Kwahu Afram Plains South district should be equipped with the prerequisite skills to enable them to teach motor skills development effectively. It is also recommended that more qualified physical education personnel should be sent to the basic level in Kwahu Afram Plains South district to teach physical education since motor development and skill acquisition develop the habit of the active lifestyle of individuals.Full article
Research Article
Open Access June 22, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Effect of Vibration to Fatigued Plantar Flexor Muscles on Postural Stability in Healthy Young Adults

Universal Journal of Sport Sciences 2021, 1(1), 11-18. DOI: 10.31586/ujss.2021.010102
Abstract
Objective: The effects of muscle fatigue appear to elicit a transient means of postural instability; however, the recovery of postural stability after fatiguing exercise has not been extensively studied. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of local vibration applied to fatigued plantar flexor muscles on postural stability in
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Objective: The effects of muscle fatigue appear to elicit a transient means of postural instability; however, the recovery of postural stability after fatiguing exercise has not been extensively studied. This study aimed to determine the immediate effect of local vibration applied to fatigued plantar flexor muscles on postural stability in healthy young adults. Design: True Experimental (pre-test - post test design with a control group). Setting: A tertiary care centre. Participations: 42 healthy young adults. Intervention: Fatigue of plantar flexors muscles was induced by repeated dynamic contractions performed to maximum exhaustion. Experimental group (n= 21) received local vibration to fatigued muscles with a handheld vibrator whereas the control group (n = 21) received no intervention (rest). Postural stability was assessed using one leg stance test (OLST) under three different conditions viz. pre-fatigue, post-fatigue and post rest/vibration. Results: Comparative analysis of postural stability within the group was done pre-fatigue, post-fatigue and post rest/vibration condition using Kruskal-Wallis test. A significant decrease from pre-fatigue to post-fatigue condition (p-value < 0.001); and a significant increase from post-fatigue to post rest/vibration condition (p-value < 0.001) was observed in OLST in both - control group and experimental group. However, further comparison of OLST between the groups (using unpaired t test) showed a significant difference in post-fatigue condition versus post rest/vibration condition in favour of the experimental group. Conclusion: Plantar flexors fatigue significantly affects one leg stance time in healthy young adults. Results of this study show that there is an immediate effect of vibration to fatigued muscles on recovery of postural stability in healthy young adults. Recovery of postural stability achieved quickly with such a simple tool may help increase the degree of participation in sports and other similar activities which can cause muscles to fatigue. However, more studies are required to determine this effect using other clinical measures.Full article
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