Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh <p>Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (UJSSH) is an international, open access journal with rapid peer-review, which publishes works from a wide range of fields, including anthropology, criminology, economics, education, geography, history, law, linguistics, political science, psychology, social policy, social work, sociology and so on.</p> en-US Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2769-8912 An Appraisal of Junior High School Learners Perception in Using Flipped Classroom Model in Learning Social Studies Lessons https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/545 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the perception of Junior High School learners in using flipped classroom model in learning Social Studies in Aowin Municipality in the western north region of Ghana. Qualitatively, descriptive survey design was used for this study. The population of the comprised junior high school students of Enchi Methodist School. Convenient and purposive sampling techniques were used to select both the school and fifty (50) respondents for the study. The main instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The questionnaire was made up of four-point Likert closed-ended statements that required learners to tick, where appropriate, their responses. The data were analysed using the SPSS software package. The data was edited, coded and analysed into frequencies, percentages with interpretations. The study concluded that, Junior High School Social Studies learners have a generally positive perception regarding the use of the flipped classroom model to learn Social Studies. This implies that, students positively respond to the use of flipped classroom as a teaching method. Since learners have a general positive perception of the use of the flipped classroom, it is recommended that teachers use the flipped classroom as a teaching method while parents are also encouraged to provide their wards with the necessary support such as phones and data to facilitate students’ learning.</p> George Ebanyenle Ackah Hippolyt Dickson Angbing Selina Gyamfuah Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-11-30 2022-11-30 210 218 Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of Teachers and Their Formative Assessment Practices in Social Studies Lessons https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/459 <p>The purpose of the study was to examine technological pedagogical content knowledge of teachers and their formative assessment practices in Social Studies lessons in the Junior High Schools in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abirem (K.E.E.A) Municipality of Ghana. With a mixed method approach, the study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population for the study included all Social Studies teachers at the public junior high schools in the in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abirem Municipality. Purposive sampling technique was used to select all the seventy-four (74) public Junior High Schools and the Social Studies teachers for the study. The purposive sampling technique was used to sample the respondents because they constitute expert knowledge in the subject area and having the same characteristics. The two main instruments used to gather data for the study were questionnaire and observation. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study indicated that the assessment practices of teachers during Social Studies lessons were on the average. There was disparity between theory and practice as far as the dictates of the profile dimensions are concerned. Teachers mostly assess the cognitive aspect of the child with little attention to the affective domain. The study also concluded that there was a significant positive relationship between TPACK of teachers and their formative assessment practices at 0.05 level of significance. It is recommended that Ministry of Education, National Teaching Council, Ghana Education Service should organize professional development workshop for teachers on their formative classroom assessment practices in Social Studies lessons. It is also recommended that, in order to ensure effective formative assessment practices, Ghana Education Service should collaborate with Colleges of Education and Universities training teachers to develop appropriate TPACK for teachers to improve on their formative assessment practices in the classroom.</p> Anthony Bordoh Isaac Eshun Alhaji Waziri Ibrahim Theophilus Kweku Bassaw Akosua Baah Joseph Yeboah Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 201 209 Motives of Tourists’: Socio-Economic and Challenges of Kwahu Easter Festival (KEF) in Ghana https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/397 <p>The purpose of the study was to examine the Motives of Tourists; Socio-Economic and Challenges of tourism in Kwahu in the Eastern Region of Ghana The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised six (6) communities (Mpraeso, Atibie, Obomeng, Obo Oworobong, and Nketepa in Kwahu South District Assembly (KSDA) in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Purposive and convenient sampling techniques were employed to select two hundred (200) respondents for the study. The main instrument used for data collection was questionnaires. The study employed the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) to code and process the collected data. Descriptive and relational statistical techniques involving frequencies, percentages, summations, diagrams, and tables were employed in analysing the data. The Chi-square test analysis was used to explore the relationships and differences in perceptions. The study indicated that every tourist, whether local (Ghanaian) or foreign, had at least one of the following motives in mind for participating in the festival; To socialize; For relaxation; For education to participate and witness the paragliding festivals; To take photographs of festival scenes; Other motives like to sell items, especially souvenirs. The study also revealed that the KEF has had some positive socio-economic impact or implications on the area. These among others include: job creation, income generation for locals of the area, infrastructural development, and projection of the image of the area as the festival has become one of the biggest gatherings of revellers in the country, drawing people from all walks of life, nationally and internationally as a result of the introduction of paragliding since 2005, socialization enhancement, medium for cultural exchange and education, and finally serves as a medium for portraying the cultural identity of the people of Kwahu. The study also indicated that the major challenges encountered by tourists during the event were listed in order of degree of intensity: High cost of living, poor road network in the area, intermitted electricity and water supply, poor sanitary conditions in the area, poor health facilities, and unwelcoming attitude of some local residents of the festival area. It is recommended that, residents must be educated about the potential benefits of tourism as an industry helping to achieve sustainable community development. It is also recommended that Ghana tourism authority and Kwahu District Assembly should collaborate to improve on social amenities in the municipality to attract more foreign and local tourists during the festivity.</p> Kate Gyasi Anthony Bordoh Samuel Otoo Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-08-08 2022-08-08 176 185 Students’ Knowledge and Sources of Information on HIV/AIDS: Evidence from the Lower Manya Krobo Municipality of the Eastern Region of Ghana https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/390 <p>Undoubtedly, HIV/AIDS menace has been a major source of concern to everyone, particularly, the people of Lower Manya Krobo Municipality (LMKM) as the area has always recorded a higher rate of infections compared with other districts in Ghana. Against this backdrop, the study sought to assess the HIV/AIDS knowledge of Senior High School students in the Lower Manya Krobo Municipality of the Eastern Region of Ghana. To obtain the respondents, a simple random sampling technique was adopted to select 300 students, comprising 120 boys and 180 girls proportionately selected from the four public Senior High Schools in the Municipality. A-37 item questionnaire adapted from Wanjiru Helen Wairimu was used for the data collection. The obtained data were analysed using descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages). The study found that the majority of the senior high school students in the LMKM of Ghana have high knowledge about HIV/AIDS through several available sources within their domain. However, it was again found out that HIV/AIDS knowledge they have does not have much impact and influence on their sexual behaviour. Several recommendations were suggested which include; the fact that the Ministry of Health in collaboration with other important educational agencies should intensify sex education to students and the community members in order to strengthen their awareness of HIV/AIDS.</p> Maxwell Ofori Ernest Amoah Nyarne Isaac Eshun Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-08-12 2022-08-12 186 200 Impact of Stress and Burnout on Quality of Life of Pastors https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/388 <p>The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of stress and burnout on the quality of life of pastors in Assemblies of God Church in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 254 out of a population of 744 was used for the study using stratified and simple random sampling procedures. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analysed using means and standard deviations, linear multiple regression, independent samples t-test, and one-way Analysis of Variance. Results showed that the pastors often experienced stress and frustrations due to a lack of resources such as money and infrastructure, different roles competing for their attention (ministry and family), delays in reaching their ministry goals, and carrying out a lot of activities the same time. The study also found that the pastors felt emotionally drained by their work and felt burned out. The study revealed that the relationship between stress level and quality of life was statistically significant. Similarly, the relationship between burnout level and quality of life was statistically significant. It was recommended that the leadership of Assemblies of God Church, Ghana should organise intermittent workshops for their pastors in all their branches on how to cope with the emotional drains of pastoring.</p> Stephen Doh Fia Charles Fosu-Ayarkwah Bismarck Kusi Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-08-01 2022-08-01 160 175 Techniques and Strategies Use in Assessing Social Studies Concepts https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/381 <p>The purpose of the study was to examine techniques and strategies use in assessing Social Studies concepts in the three senior high schools in Sefwi Wiawso Municipality in the Western North Region of Ghana. Qualitatively, the research design for this study was a Case study. The population for this study consisted of all ten (10) Social Studies teachers in three public Senior High Schools (Wiawso Senior High School, Wiawso Senior/Technical school, and Asawinso senior high school) in Sefwi Wiawso municipality in the Western North Region of Ghana. Purposive and convenient sampling techniques were used to select municipalities, schools, and Social Studies teachers for the study. The main instrument used for data collection was interview. The data were edited before being analyzed in themes and pattern. Being a case study design in qualitative research, the researcher read through the data several times so as to familiarize with the data, making notes, referring back to the research question, making decisions whether to focus on individual responses or on topics. The interview data were interpreted to articulate meaning, making decisions on whether to use direct quotes or the summary of respondents’ responses and reporting the data considering the interest of various audiences. The study revealed that teachers used various teaching techniques such as brainstorming, simulation, discovery-learning, role-play discussion, dramatization, problem-solving, and building a community implies that they believed in child-centered method of the teaching and learning of Social Studies. The study also concluded that Social Studies teachers use techniques and strategies like concept attainment, field trips, and debate co-operative learning in motivating and providing learners with the opportunity to interact with their own community or environment. It is recommended that Social Studies teachers should make effort either to go on field trips or make use of available experts that are in their communities by inviting them into the Social Studies classrooms to tap into their rich knowledge to enhance concept learning. It is also recommended that frequent seminars and periodic or regular in-service training should be organised by the Ghana Education Service to help Social Studies teachers to acquaint themselves with the modern teaching techniques and strategies that promote the teaching and learning of Social Studies concepts.</p> Patrick Kwarteng Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-07-25 2022-07-25 144 159 Accessibility Issues Facing School Supervision: A Study of Island Schools in the Krachi-East and Krachi-West Education Directorates, Ghana https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/363 <p>Supervision is at the core of every successful organization or institution. The fundamental thrust of this study is to examine the challenges external supervisors encounter and the mitigating measures they employ to ensure supervision of schools in island communities within the Krachi-East and Krachi-West Education Directorates in the Oti Region, Ghana. The study employed the mixed method approach to studying phenomena, precisely the sequential explanatory mixed method. The quantitative data was gathered from seventeen (17) participants and analysed descriptively using mean and standard deviation with the help of the SPSS software package and presented in tables. The qualitative data from three (3) interviewees was analysed based on themes that are related to the research questions. The study established that the accessibility of island schools by external supervisors was a major challenge. This was due to a lack of readily available canoes and the required accessories for safe travelling by water. The study recommends that schools in such enclaves be provided with outboard motors, canoes, and life jackets as well as operators.</p> Emmanuel Nomah Jacob Issaka Samuel Abotowuro Lambert Sefadzi Ahiadzu Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 133 143 An appraisal of Social Studies Teachers Perceptions of Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/356 <p>The study objective was to assess the perceptions of Junior High School (JHS) Social Studies teachers in the Yilo Krobo Municipality of the Eastern Region of Ghana on teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). The study adopted Shulman's theory of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) as its theoretical framework. The philosophical approach upon which the study is hinged on is the ideology of interpretivism and positivism, in other words, pragmatism. The study used a mixed methodological approach as well as a descriptive survey design. A random sampling technique was used for the study. The study participants were JHS social studies teachers in Yilo-Krobo Municipality, Ghana. Eighty (80) out of the one hundred and two (102) representing 78.43% JHS Social Studies teachers were selected from the fifty-four JHSs in the Municipality. Both Questionnaire and interview guide were used for data collection. The survey data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the interview data was analyzed using content analysis. The study indicated that at the heart of the PCK concept is the idea that 'deep knowledge' of content is essential for effective teaching and cannot be taken for granted; that it has a significant bearing on teaching and student learning, and that it is used as a cadre to define professional teaching knowledge. PCK also provides the uniquely necessary knowledge for the transformation of the different types of knowledge required for Social Studies teaching and evolves over time due to the progressive awareness of students' needs, while a wealth of content knowledge is imperative for the development of a comprehensive pedagogical content knowledge. The paper recommends that the Ghana Education Service (GES) should conduct regular in-service training for teachers on the enhancement of their PCK, to enable them select appropriate TLMs and pedagogical approaches that foster meaningful learning for students.</p> Maxwell Ofori Shani Osman Grace Baaba Idun Edward Asiedu Ofori Emmanuel Agbenyegah Ayerteye Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-07-04 2022-07-04 106 118 Farmers’ Perceptions on the Impacts of Climate Change (CC) on Crops Output https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/355 <p>The study aimed at examining farmers’ perceptions on the impacts of climate change on food crops and the farming practices that contribute to climate change (CC) in Bibiani – Ahwiaso – Bekwai municipality of Western North Region of Ghana. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used for this study. The population of the study consisted of the number of households in six communities (Hwenampori, Wenchi, Tanoso, Awaso-Asempanaye, Kunkumso, and Sefwi Bekwai), officials from MoFA, GMA, and heads of households who are food crop farmers from the study area. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select respondents for the study. 231 respondents were selected and contacted for information to aid them in the study. The main instruments for data collection were the administration of questionnaires to farmers, organization of focus group discussions with key informants, the use of structured interview guides on MoFA directorates and direct observation of some farms. The primary and secondary data were sourced mainly from household heads from the study communities who are in the production of maize, cassava, and plantain. Pearson Chi-Square and Cross-tabulation of the IBM SPSS Version 20 were also used in performing descriptive statistical analysis. The study revealed that the output of maize, cassava, and plantain have all proved to be negatively impacted by changes in rainfall and temperature patterns with a more significant impact observed from maize responses to temperature. The study also indicated that the impact of climate change may affect the crops at any stage of the production process right from the land preparation to the maturity stage of crops but the more profound effect is observed at fruit development and maturation stages. The study indicated that changes in temperature affect crop yield, especially during the fruit/seed development stage. The study revealed that most farmers (about 92.2%) have observed climate change in the study area and indicated events like unpredictable rainfall patterns, excessively high temperatures and strong winds. It is recommended that capacity building and awareness creation should be enhanced by GMA and MoFA through the media to ensure that communication about climate change and food security is meaningful. This means that education on diversification of farming methods has not been enough if there is any at all in the area. Awareness creation, therefore, allows people to make informed and responsible decisions toward sustainable farming practices which will lead to food security and also environmental sustainability.</p> Isaac Verberk Mensah Samuel Kingsford Twene Eric Kofi Adjei Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-07-05 2022-07-05 119 132 Appraisal of Challenges and Community Promotion in WASH Facilities in Senior High Schools in Ghana https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/344 <p>This study adopted both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The study population covered the house masters and mistresses, students, teachers, grounds prefect and WASH coordinators in the Assin Manso, Adankwaman, Nyankomasi Ahenkro, Assin Nsuta Agric Senior High Schools in the Assin South District. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were employed to select respondents for the study. The sample size for the study was 216. Two hundred students (200) were selected from the four senior high schools in the District, that is, 50 students from each school, four (4) grounds prefects, one from each school, eight (8) house masters /mistresses, that is, two (2) from each school, and four (4) WASH coordinators one each from a school. The main tools used for the study were semi-structured questionnaires, interview guide and observation checklist. Data analysis was done using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively and emerging themes from the data were obtained and categorised and then interpreted through the interview guide with observation checklist digital data such as photographs were used to bring out some aspects of the schools’ surrounding. On the other hand, quantitative data were collected using questionnaire on the numbers of schools and WASH facilities, and analysed using SPSS. The study indicated that the failure of the school administration to maintain the WASH facilities will eventually lead to their breakdown, thus making it difficult for the students to use them. The study also revealed that the poor participation by the communities in the provision and maintenance of the WASH facilities stems from the fact they do not get any direct benefit from the schools. It is recommended that, in promoting WASH facilities in the schools, administrators must include maintenance of the facilities in their provision to ensure their long-term use, other than that the facilities will break down, and resources will have to be mobilized again to repair them or provide new ones. It is also recommended that, Rules and regulations concerning the use and maintenance of WASH facilities should be made by school administration and copies given to the students to guide them as they use the facilities.</p> Irene Tudagbe-Obour Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-06-26 2022-06-26 93 105 Teachers Knowledge in Integrating Affective Domain in Teaching and Learning of Social Studies https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/337 <p>The purpose of the study was to assess teachers’ knowledge in integrating affective domain in teaching and learning of Social Studies lessons in the junior high schools in Aowin Municipality. A quantitative approach and survey research design used the study. The study population constituted Social Studies teachers in the 40 Junior High Schools in the Aowin Municipality of the Western North Region of Ghana. Simple random and convenient sampling techniques were used to sample the respondents of the study. The sampling technique was to ensure the representativeness of the sample. The study used structured questionnaires to collect the data. Descriptive statistics in the form of percentages was used in this study. SPSS was used to analyse the data. The study concluded that the Social Studies teachers have some level of knowledge of the principles of developing affective test items. The study also indicated that Social Studies teachers in the study area can define affective objectives in behavioural terms and have some level of knowledge of the principles of developing affective test items, they do not teach the affective domain. It is recommended that, Coordinators for junior high schools and the headmasters (academic) should ensure that affective objectives are inculcated in the general lesson objectives of Social Studies teachers. Intensive in-service training should be ran for Social Studies teachers to equip them on the formulation of affective objectives. It is also recommended that in service training should be organised by the education directorate in the municipality to train teachers in the teaching of lessons involving the affective domain. The headmasters, as well as the coordinators for junior high schools, should monitor whether teacher’s qualification reflect in the teaching of the social studies lessons that involve the affective domain.</p> Bright Korankye Appau Sophia Andoh Eric Kofi Adjei George Boateng Sebastian Atta-Fynn Shani Osman Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 85 92 Social Studies Teachers’ Competence in Assessing Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/334 <p>The main purpose of this study was to examine Social Studies teachers’ competence in teaching and assessing learning outcomes in affective domain in senior high schools in the Aowin Municipality in Western North Region in Ghana. A quantitative approach was used in this study as it allowed the researchers to carry out an objective analysis and generate factual knowledge through measurement. The survey design was used for the study. The study population constituted Social Studies teachers in the 40 Junior High Schools in the Aowin Municipality of the Western North Region of Ghana. Simple random and convenient sampling techniques were used to select the schools and respondents for the study. The simple random sampling was used to select 20 schools to participate in the study. This was to provide an equal opportunity for each school to participate in the study. From these selected schools, a convenience sampling technique was used in selecting forty (40) teachers (two from each school in the Aowin Municipality where Social Studies is offered as a core subject. The main instrument used for the study was structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics in the form of percentages was used to analysis the data in this study. The study concluded that Social Studies teachers hardly teach and assess directly in the affective outcome, hence the affective domain is neglected in the teaching and learning of the subject. It is recommended that the universities and other training institutions should strengthen the teaching on the use of the techniques for assessing the affective domain. In-service training courses should also be organised regularly for social studies teachers on the use of the techniques for the assessment of affective domain.</p> Bright Korankye Appau Shani Osman Mark Gyan Asuah Emmanuel Kyeremeh Dorothy Akuffo Boateng Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-06-18 2022-06-18 70 84 Teachers’ Knowledge in the Implementation of Social Studies lessons in the Classroom: Formative Assessment Practices https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/321 <p>The purpose of the study was to examine Social Studies teachers’ knowledge in the implementation of Social Studies lessons in formative assessment practices in Asante Akim North Municipality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The study employed both descriptive and interpretative techniques. The population for the study consisted of all Social Studies teachers and students in the Senior High Schools in the Asante Akim North Municipality of the Ashanti Region. Purposive, convenient and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the schools, teachers and students for the study in all, seventeen (17) Social Studies teachers and fifty (50) students were selected from six (6) Senior High Schools. The main instrument for data collection observation, interview and focus group discussion. The study revealed that not lessons presented were in line with the general objective of the subject (Social Studies). This affected the students understanding of concepts in the subject in helping them to right wrong their decision making. The study also indicates that teaching and learning Social Studies should not be one-man affair, with the teacher doing all the talking and the students doing all the listening. It is recommended that Ghana Education Service should organise workshops and in-service training for Social Studies teachers at the Senior High School level on how to present and evaluate social Studies lessons in order to realise the goals and objectives envisaged for national development. It is also recommended that teachers who have the exposure of the subject and are equally qualified to teach it at the Senior High Schools but are found teaching at the basic level, should be allowed by the Ghana Education Service to teach the subjects at the Senior High School level. The Government of Ghana should make it a laid down policy for the recruitment of qualified Social Studies teachers to teach at the Senior High School (SHS) level for effective assessment in the classroom.</p> Nicholas Aning Boadu Francis Hull Adams Michael Franklin Mensah Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-06-05 2022-06-05 57 69 Students’ Knowledge Base in the Value of Honesty in Senior High Schools https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/310 <p>The purpose of the study was to examine the knowledge base of students in the Assin Manso Senior High School in the central region of Ghana. A qualitative method was used in this study. The population of the study comprised students from Assin Manso senior high school in the Central Region of Ghana. Purposive sampling technique was employed to select forty (40) respondents for this study. The forty (40) respondents consisted of all Students Representative Councils (SRC) members in the school. Each class has a representation in the study. The main instrument for data collection was interview guide. The data collection was done using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The qualitative data was analysed by the use of the interpretative technique based on the themes arrived at during the interview. The themes were related to the research question. The study revealed that honesty is being loyal to a colleague, covering them up and standing by them as well. The study also indicated that honesty depict “we feeling” or “solidarity”, so to them any students who does the opposite is considered to be dishonest. It is recommended that, Students who obey the school rules and regulations should be motivated by the school authorities in order to encourage the other students to do same. It is also recommended that parents and educators, should all advocate the teaching of moral values in our schools to instil in students the benefits that honest brings to them, the school, the family, community and the country as a whole.</p> Solomon Appiah Uriel Amuah Francis Tawiah Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-05-22 2022-05-22 46 56 Teachers’ Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge in the Junior High School Social Studies Curriculum https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/301 <p>Knowledge of the content alone is no guarantee for effective teaching and learning, there is the need for teachers to demonstrate high level of technological and pedagogical power. The study examined the technological pedagogical content knowledge of Social Studies teachers’ in Junior High Schools in Aowin municipality in the Western North Region of Ghana. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population for the study included all Social Studies teachers in the public Junior High Schools in the Aowin Municipality. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the Seventy-four (74) Junior High Schools and Seventy-four (74) the Social Studies teachers for the study. The main instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The study revealed that, teachers have adequate content knowledge to teach Social Studies but there are doubts as to whether their knowledge is current. The study also concluded that, teachers were not confident about their technological, pedagogical and content knowledge in Social Studies and this resulted in their negative attitude towards the integration of technology in classroom activities. It is recommended that, the Ghana Education Service should organize In-Service Training and refresher courses for teachers to keep them current and up-to-date their content knowledge in Social Studies. It is also recommended that, teachers should adopt positive attitudes towards learning and using technology in their day-to-day activities.</p> Abu Bakar Francis Hull Adams Francis Tetteh-Osei Benjamin Kwabena Ochour Philip Owusu Ansah Isaac Kofi Asabere Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 34 45 Perceptions and Effective Implementation of Peace Education in Senior High Schools in the Central Region of Ghana https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/293 <p>The purpose of the study was to examine the perceptions and effective implementation of peace education in Senior High Schools in Ekumfi District in the Central Region of Ghana. The study was underpinned by the Integrative Theory of Peace Education (ITPE) [1]. The study adopted the mixed methods approach where the exploratory sequential mixed method design was employed. The convenience and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 20 and 350 participants for the qualitative and quantitative stages of the study respectively. Semi-structured interview guide and questionnaire were the main tools used to collect data for the study. The qualitative data were analyzed through the thematic approach with the help of NVivo 12 Plus while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like mean, frequency, and standard deviation with the aid of SPSS version 20. The study indicated that peace education in the schools is relevant in mentoring students who would be advocates of peace in their respective communities, preparing future leaders who are required to uphold peace and espouse peaceful attributes in their dealings with the publics as well as championing the path of national development. The study also revealed that teachers needed to be trained on the principles, knowledge, and skills required to effectively deliver peace education in the schools. The point is made that when these challenges are tackled, it will pave the way for the smooth implementation of peace education in the schools. It is recommended that peace education should be accorded the needed importance in the school curriculum. It is also recommended that the management of the schools should design and implement co-curricular programmes that are tailored towards the delivery of peace education to the students. It is further recommended that the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NaCCA) of the Ghana Education Service should incorporate peace education as a topic in the Social Studies curriculum as part of the curriculum reforms for the Senior High Schools in Ghana.</p> Ebenezer Spio Anim Anthony Bordoh Anderson Oppong Twumasi Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 16 33 Challenges of Instructional Supervision of Social Studies Lessons in the Public Basic Junior High Schools in Ghana https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/269 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges faced by School Improvement Support Officers, Headmasters and teachers during the instructional supervision of Social Studies lessons in the public basic junior high schools in the Aowin Municipality of the Western North Region of Ghana. The study adopted sequential explanatory research design. The population of the study included School Improvement Support Officers (SISOs), Headteachers and teachers of selected from Junior High Schools in Aowin Municipality of the Western North Region of Ghana. Purposive sampling technique was used to select ten (10) SISOs and sixty (60) Headteachers in the Aowin Municipality. Stratified, simple random and quota sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) teachers for the study. The two main instruments used for data collection were questionnaire and interview guide. The quantitative data entry and analysis was done by using the SPSS version 22 software package. The data was edited, coded and analysed into frequencies, percentages with interpretations. The qualitative data was analysed by the use of the interpretative method. The study revealed that headteachers and School Improvement Support Officers (SISOs) faced challenges such as ; Poor road networks which affected planned supervision; Inability of district directorate to promptly, firmly and fairly acts upon reports from instructional supervision activities from supervisors; Lack of logistics for regular supervision; Insufficient up-to-date knowledge and skills for organizing instructional supervision; and Financial constraints. To overcome the challenges and poor supervisory techniques by headteachers and SISOs, it is recommended that these personnel should be oriented on modern trends in instructional supervision, provided with adequate and sufficient materials for instructional supervision, sufficient funds provided for organizing instructional supervision, the municipal directorate should fairly and firmly implement reports on instructional supervision activities and there should be good motivation package for supervisors to enable them to effectively perform their duties.</p> Emmanuel Adom Ashun Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-04-17 2022-04-17 6 15 How to Attract Viewers through Advertisement Slogans? A Case on Figurative in Semantic Study https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/213 <p>An advertisement is the promotion of a product, brand, or service to customers in order to pique their attention and increase sales. Advertisement comes in many forms, like video, picture, and song. The main purpose of advertising is to make the product or brand known to the public and bought by people. In advertising, the producer or company will use the slogan as the product identity itself. Slogan can give bridge the advertisement about the image of product. In slogan there are short words, often memorable to send a message of the advertisement to the people. This study aimed to analyze the type of figurative language used in advertisement slogan. The design of this research is descriptive qualitative method. In this research, the researchers focused on English slogan of Indonesia advertising. The data were collected from internet, newspaper and television. Furthermore, the collected data were analyzed by Kennedy’s (1983) theory. The researchers found there were 15 English slogan of advertisement. Based on the data analysis, the result of the research showed that the most types figurative language used in advertisement slogan was Metaphor (33,33%) or 5 slogans, personification (26,66%) or 4 slogans, hyperbole (26,66% ) or 4 slogans and symbol (13,33%) 2 slogans. The researchers did not found type of figurative language Simile, Litotes, Synecdoche, Allusion, Paradox, Irony, Ellipsis and Metanymy in advertisement slogans. As we can see, the dominant type of figurative language used in advertisement slogan was Metaphor with total amount 5 slogans (33,33%) from the data.</p> Herman Herman Ridwin Purba Damaris Rossi Sitohang Nguyen Van Thao Pham Thi Quynh Trang Copyright (c) 2022 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2022-03-25 2022-03-25 1 5 Sociolinguistics Analysis on Language Style Form at the Movie Script of Papillon https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/110 This research discusses language style at the movie script of Papillon. This research aims to classify the type of language style and the functions of the speakers’ utterances in using language style at the movie script of Papillon. The data source of this research was YouTube “Papillon” which was aired on September, 26th 2018. This study utilized theories of Martin Joos' types of language styles and Roman Jakobson's function. Data from the Papillon Movie Script. Researchers have implemented qualitative research designs to answer the research question. The researchers used documentation as a tool for research. The researchers found 30 language-style data sets as a result of their inves-tigation. The scientists discovered many linguistic styles. The styles are as follows: 1 data point or 3%, 6 data points or 20%, were discovered in frozen style; 11 data points or 37%, casual style 6 to 20, and intimate style 6 to 20 were found in consultancies. The following five roles were revealed in the language style: expressive, guiding, referential, metalinguistic and phasic. There were 6 data or 20 percent of expressive function; the directive works 3 or 10 percent, the reference function found 8 or 27%, the metalinguistic function discovered 7 or 23% and the phatic function discovered 6 data or 20%. No poetic function is available in the film. Dameria Purba Febi Sulistia Vebriati Lelyana Br. Manurung Herman Copyright (c) 2021-08-27 2021-08-27 37 45 Criminal Legislative Policy in the Protection of Water Resources with Regard to International Treaties: A case for Iranian Legal System https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/100 Human life and survival on Earth depend on the exploitation of diverse resources, including water. Improper use of environmental resources will lead to pollution and destruction. As one of the most sensitive areas of the environment to which human life depends, water is exposed to a variety of environmental pollutants. The protection of the health of water resources has created the need for intervention and the use of legal and criminal solutions in organizing their use. Domestic penal policy in the field of legislation, inspired by the provisions of Sharia law, along with local and national considerations for the protection of water resources, has, directly and indirectly, affected the requirements of accession to international instruments and has enacted regulations on the protection of small water resources. Nima Norouzi Mohammad Sheikhi Heshmat-Ullah khanmohammadi Mahmood Jafari Soheila Kalantari Soheila Vaziri Narani Ali Shaebani Copyright (c) 2021 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 67 79 Environmental Constitutionalism in Latin America https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/96 Chile is part of the phenomenon of Environmental Constitutionalism developed in the Latin American region. Thus its Political Constitution contemplates the right of people to live in an en-vironment free of contamination and establishes duties for the state regarding the Law and the protection of the environment. However, this formula has been deficient, which warrants re-thinking the issues related to the environment at the constitutional level. This work follows this path from the study of the constitutional reform projects currently in the National Congress to systematize analysis at the service of a change that is the basis for an adequate environmental le-gal framework, respectful of human rights human beings and that maximizes the protection of the environment. Ahmad Shohani Elham Ataei Nima Norouzi Copyright (c) 2021 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 54 66 Effective Teaching of Social Studies Concepts in Basic Schools in Ghana https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/95 The study focused Effective teaching of Social Studies Concepts in Basic Schools in Ghana. The study adopted the descriptive survey design using quantitative approach. The population for the study consisted of all Social Studies teachers in the Junior High Schools (JHS) in the Tano South District. There were fifty-two Social Studies teachers at the JHS level in the district. Non-probability sampling technique (purposive and convenient sampling techniques) was used for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select all the fifty-two teachers and forty-one schools in the Tano South District. While the district was conveniently sampled for this study. The main instrument used to gather data was observation guide. The data gathered was analysed using the Statistical Product using Service Solutions (SPSS). The study concluded that, in respect to the teaching effectiveness of Social Studies teachers, the general performance in all the thematic areas assessed indicate that, Social Studies teachers are not at their optimum best in terms of planning and preparation, instructional skills, classroom management, communication skills and assessment skills. It is therefore recommended that, the Ministry of Education through the Ghana Education Service (GES) in collaboration with all the teacher training institutions training Social Studies teachers should fashion out teacher development programmes such as workshops and short courses for Social Studies teachers. In these programmes, the organisers must ensure that teachers have access to high quality content course work in Social Studies. Anthony Bordoh Francis Nyantakyi Alexander Kingsford Otoo Abena Boakyewa Philip Owusu-Ansah Isaac Eshun Copyright (c) 2021 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 46 53 When we put spatial causalities first in production of scientific knowledge: notes on the geography of science https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/28 Abstract: Any history of science has its own geography as well. Geographers of science have tried to put science in its place. They study the socio-spatial settings in which scientific knowledge was generated, displayed and legitimated. For them, science is socially constructed in spatialities and temporalities. The main question should to be “how” spatialities are constructing scientific knowledge via its “causalities”. Geography of science is not just about special places, locations, and regions in which scientific knowledge is unequally produced/consumed and circulated or how the use of scientific knowledge can lead to the production and reproduction of unique places and spaces. Geography of science is also about a variety set of spatial causalities through which scientific knowledge can be formed and transformed. This also means that the innovative knowledge or ideas development takes place not only in the spatial contexts but because of the spatial causalities which rise from the myriad interlinkages and interdependencies among places. These imperatives of spatial significance operate across many spatial scales from the body to the global. Hence, in our increasingly glocalized world, we must seek knowledge in spatial encounters and betweenness of places, not merely within spaces and places. Mahmood Shoorcheh Copyright (c) 2021 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2021-06-13 2021-06-13 Modeling of Target Audience'S Intellectual Behavior https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/19 <p>The article considers the problems of theoretical substantiation of negative informational and psychological impact evaluation principles, and conducting of relevant researches in this field. At the same time, due to imperfections of theory and practice of negative informational and psychological impact evaluation, previous researches were conducted mainly by “mirroring” the ways of information counteraction, both for our own measures of information and psychological influence, and for the adversary. The rationale for the methodological approaches used in the organization of information and psychological influence is due to inability to access the adversary's target audiences freely and gather the necessary information, as well as the inadequacy of assessing the degree of change in their behaviour. Characteristics mentioned in article classify target audiences according to defined indicators of remote information control of social and individual behaviour of possible objects of influence. Using the formulated conditions and relying on the psychological and psychophysiological characteristics of individuals, a database of target audience behaviour vulnerabilities is forming, that reflects the dependence of indicators of social behaviour perception changes on the intensity of external negative informational and psychological influences. The algorithm of target audience’s information perception is developed based on the model of planned behaviour, in which the subject’s overestimation of small values of probabilities are compared in dynamic with decrease of big ones. The proposed algorithm of evaluation of information-psychological impact allows to receive initial data based on which the model of target audience behaviour will be designed in any environmental conditions.</p> Vitakiy Katsalap Copyright (c) 2021 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2021-05-21 2021-05-21 1 10 Application of Stochastic Dominance in Hedging Decision during COVID-19 Pneumonia Emergency Events https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/ujssh/article/view/12 With the rise of virtual currencies, Bitcoin has gradually become one of the safe-haven tools in the financial market. During situations of worldwide outbreaks of an infectious disease, investors pay special attention to asset allocation. Therefore, this study discusses the outbreak of COVID-19 in China, which has affected financial markets and has led investors to avoid risks through investing in traditional financial products or Bitcoin. We found that during the time of the COVID-19 pneumonia, Bitcoin and gold futures were used for hedging transactions in the face of unstable Chinese market conditions and under the pursuit of investors' maximization of return on in-vestment. Furthermore, there was also no difference between hedging through Bitcoin or gold futures; however, investors had a preference to invest in gold futures for hedging under the as-sumption that an investor was absolutely risk averse. Wen Hsiang Chiu Shih-Wei Hung Copyright (c) 2021 Universal Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 11 17