World Journal of Clinical Medicine Research <p>World Journal of Clinical Medicine Research(WJCMR) is a peer reviewed journal dedicated to the latest advancement of clinical medicine. The goal of this journal is to serve as a resource for dissemination of state-of-the-art research and educational material within the field of clinical medicine. CMR aims to promote rapid communication and dialogue among researchers, scientists, and engineers working in the areas of clinical medicine. It is hoped that this journal will prove to be an important factor in raising the standards of discussion, analyses, and evaluations relating to clinical medicine programs.</p> en-US World Journal of Clinical Medicine Research Cyclophosphamide Induces Hepatorenal Toxicity and Attenuation by 5-fluorouracil in Male Albino Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cyclophosphamide (CPA) induces acute inflammation of the urinary bladder, renal damage, and liver damage, thereby limiting its therapeutic use. <strong>Objectives:</strong> The present study aimed to evaluate the hepatorenal toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide and amelioration by 5-fluorouracil in male albino rats. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Twenty-eight male adult rats were grouped randomly into four groups (n=5 for each group). Group I (control): Rats were injected with saline intraperitoneally and at a dose of 1.0 ml/kg b.w. for 14 days. Group II cyclophosphamide (CPA): Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 10 mg/kg day by day through i.p. to rats for 14 days. Group III Fluorouracil (5-FU): 5-Fluorouracil at a dose of 10 mg/kg day by day in saline was given through i.p. to rats for 14 days. Group IV (CPA+5-FU): Rats were given CPA followed by 5-FU at a dose of 10 mg/kg per day (day by day) through i.p. to rats for 14 days. At the end of the experimental period, rats were anesthetized using light ether. Blood samples were taken and prepared for biochemical measurements. <strong>Results:</strong> Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin concentration significantly reduced in animal groups that received cyclophosphamide. 5-FU and CPA combination reduced the changes in total protein, albumin, and globulin compared to CPA treated group. A significant increase in LDH serum concentration was found in CPA, 5-FU, and their combination-treated animals. The mean values of the combination of chemotherapy were above that in CPA followed by 5-FU treatment. Administration of CPA, 5-FU resulted in a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin compared to the control. Co-treatment 5-FU with CPA significantly attenuated the increase in serum AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin when compared to CPA – treated rats. Compared to controls, urea and creatinine levels were increased in CPA-treated rats, while uric acid was reduced in CPA, 5-FU, and their combination. The changes in urea and creatinine produced by the chemotherapy were restored when rats received CPA in combination with 5-FU. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>It could be concluded that the treatment of mammals with chemotherapy is associated with the production of free radicals that lead to hazardous alterations in biochemical parameters. However, 5-FU and CPA combination could produce a significant amelioration in most cases for these changes, and it may be considered as a potentially useful candidate in the combination chemotherapy with CPA to combat oxidative stress-mediated non-target organ injury even if it was not complete protection. Future work should consider combined chemotherapy regimens, as two or more mechanisms of action of chemotherapeutic drugs could be more powerful than one mechanism. Toxicological studies must be performed before using drugs as a combination before application. Further research is required on the toxicological impacts of drugs and pollutants mixtures.</p> Rabia A M Yahya Ahmed M. Attia Mona A. Yehia Azab Elsayed Azab Karema El.M. Shkal Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 2022-10-15 2022-10-15 8 21 Acceptance of a Prescription for Smoking Cessation Utilizing an iPad Educational Application <p>Tobacco use, especially smoking, poses an enormous threat to public health. Research indicates tobacco use is linked to many illnesses and premature death. It also has unhealthy consequences in non-smokers through second-hand exposure. Primary care clinicians have the “golden opportunities” to intervene during office visit encounters. This study examined the use of an iPad educational application in tobacco cessation counseling that would increase acceptance of a prescription to aid with cessation, compared to the traditional method of counseling only. Utilizing smoking cessation guidelines, a descriptive quantitative exploratory methodology was used in two phases to assess the effectiveness of tobacco cessation education in a traditional verbal counseling versus the additional use of a mobile application along with standard tobacco cessation counseling in a primary care clinical setting. Total of 49 participants were recruited in two different groups. The standard cessation counseling had 29 subjects for Phase I and 20 participants in the enhanced tobacco cessation education group in Phase II. The enhanced tobacco cessation education with an iPad was more effective in smoking education than the traditional standard verbal counseling on smoking cessation. The addition of a mobile device with relevant educational materials shared with smokers by clinicians have shown an increase in acceptance of a prescription to aid tobacco cessation. Clinicians are strongly encouraged to find innovative ways to help smoking patients accept aids in successful cessation attempts.</p> Annie Huynh Kathleen Gilchrist Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 2022-10-12 2022-10-12 1 7 Impact of Lesion Locations on the Severity of Post-Stroke Depression <p><strong>Background</strong>: Depression occurs in one-third of stroke patients, in what is known as post-stroke depression. The lesion sites in stroke have been associated with the degree of depression. However, studies have provided different perspectives, and this necessitates further clarification. This study investigates the relationship between the lesion sites and the severity of depression in ischemic stroke patients. <strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2020. All samples were obtained from admitted patients with ischemic stroke who agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), which was used to determine the severity of depression, and the lesion sites were based on radiological imaging interpretation. <strong>Results</strong>: The study showed a significant association between the lesion site and the degree of depression (OR = 5,368, p-value = 0,013). Lesions in the frontal lobe demonstrated stronger associations with the severity of depression. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The location of the lesion, especially in the frontal lobe, was associated with more severe post-stroke depression.</p> Yusak MT Siahaan Fernando Dharmaraja Evlyne E Suryawijaya Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 2022-11-21 2022-11-21 22 26