World Journal of Medical Microbiology <p>World Journal of Medical Microbiology(WJMR) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in Medical Microbiology. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists and academicians all over the world to promote, share, and discuss various new issues and developments in different areas of Medical Microbiology.</p> en-US World Journal of Medical Microbiology Ivermectin for Treatment of COVID-19? <p>Many attempts have been made to repurpose existing and approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 infection<strong><em>. </em></strong>This involves anti-malarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which have been shown to be less successful than initially believed, with a substantial risk of often fatal complications and interactions<strong><em>. </em></strong>This also involves Remdesivir, which has been shown to decrease recovery time significantly in hospitalized patients. However, for patients who are not yet hospitalized, there is no currently accepted treatment. Treating patients before they need to be admitted or even prophylactically could greatly decrease the load on hospitals, protect healthcare workers and reduce the spread of COVID-19. An in-vitro study indicated that Ivermectin was dynamic against COVID-19-infected cell<strong><em>.</em></strong> Ivermectin has antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer, immunomodulatory properties. This drug could reduce the viral load in COVID-9 infected patients, with potential effect on disease progression and spread. Therefore, Ivermectin may be a therapeutic choice for treatment of COVID-19, however, there is still a lack of evidence-based studies to support ivermectin treatment of patients with COVID-19.</p> Hemat Abd El Salam Ahmed Salama Mohamed Abd El-Rahman Hassan El-Shayeb Ahmed Nour El-Din Hassan Ghada Essam El-Din Amin Mohamed Farouk Allam Eman El- Sayed Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Medical Microbiology 2022-10-25 2022-10-25 30 31 Role of Probiotics in COVID-19 Management? <p>Probiotics as an intestinal microbe regulator, not only improve the ability of the gastrointestinal microbiota to modulate immune activity, but also strengthen the body's immune system, inhibit allergic reactions and has a significant role especially in the anti-viral immunomodulation. Therefore, in patients with COVID-19, the intestinal micro-eco-regulator, represented by probiotics, may be a therapeutic choice. However, there is still a lack of evidence-based studies to support probiotic treatment of patients with COVID-19. New cohort studies and randomized controlled clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of probiotics in the management of COVID-19 are strongly and urgently needed.</p> Samar Osama Ahmed Hassan Manal Sabry Mohamed Mina Mikhail Nessim Mohamed Nabil Badawy Al Ashram Mohamed Farouk Allam Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Medical Microbiology 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 13 14 Role of Probiotics for Treatment of Psoriasis? <p>Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting 125 million people worldwide. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis affecting up to 90% of the patients and is characterized by well-demarcated, symmetric, and erythematous plaques with overlying silvery scales that may be painful or itchy. Psoriasis may also affect the joints; increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, uveitis, certain cancers and an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Both the skin and the gut microbiome can modulate the development and progression of psoriasis. A connection between the microbiome and immunological mechanisms are antimicrobial peptides, which regulate the microbiome at interfaces and, as antigens, can trigger psoriasis. Few studies were conducted to demonstrate the effect of probiotics on different diseases, as they are living microorganisms that confer a health benefit when administrated in adequate amounts. The effects of administering probiotics include the stabilization of the gut bacterial community and the restoration of “signature” of bacterial microbiota, which is a result of lowering the pH, producing bacteriocins, altering microRNA (miRNAs), competing with pathogens for certain nutrients and improving the gut barrier function. Probiotics counter weight aggressive commensals in the body and reinforce the barrier function of the epithelium while also contributing to the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses of the host under healthy or pathogenic conditions. Several clinical trials were conducted based on those findings to examine the role of probiotics in psoriasis, but till now there is no evidence of their efficacy.</p> Amany Abdelrahman Kamel Mahmoud Ghada Essam El-Din Amin Marwa Abd El-Rahim Abdallah Marwa Yassin Soltan Mohamed Farouk Allam Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Medical Microbiology 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 15 17 Post COVID-19 Symptoms? <p>The SARS-COV-2 rapid spread caused an international public health emergency with unprecedented rates of morbidity and mortality. Post COVID-19 condition occurs as a spectrum of symptoms that present four or more weeks after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Most published data to date state 50-70% of hospitalized patients experienced at least one post-acute COVID-19 symptom up to 3 months after discharge. Commonly reported symptoms include; neurocognitive post COVID-19 (fatigue, dizziness, inattention, and brain fog), respiratory post-COVID (dyspnea, chest pain, and cough), and mental health related symptoms (insomnia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder). Additionally, gastro-intestinal post COVID-19 (diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain) along with decline in quality of life and decreased ability to perform activities of daily living were reported. The response to post COVID-19 symptoms is still in its infancy despite being an emerging crisis as scientific evidence and robust data are nonetheless required for clear definition, identification of time frame, classification and management of the condition. New studies are needed to identify total and individual incidence/prevalence rates of different clinical presentations of post COVID-19 symptoms. These future studies will help us to o improve early recognition of long term symptoms after acute infection of COVID-19.</p> Nesma Nabil Ahmed Elgohary Mohamed Nazmy Farris Diaa Marzouk Abdel Hamid Mohamed Farouk Allam Salwa Mostafa Mohammad Abdel Rahman Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Medical Microbiology 2022-10-25 2022-10-25 32 34 Thoughts on Pneumococcal Vaccination for the Adult Individuals with Autoimmune Diseases <p><em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> is an important pathogenic bacteria causing pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal diseases, and the vaccination for pneumococcal vaccination is recommended in patients with RA and other autoimmune disorders. Compared with the immunocompetent individuals, frequency and the mortality rate were higher in the RA patients. The effect of pneumococcal vaccination may not be weakened in people using corticosteroid and biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) currently being used, but mild to relatively inhibition of immunogenicity was suggested in patients using either methotrexate or rituximab. Administration of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), rather than 23-valent Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) may be desirable in preventing pneumonia in people with autoimmune disease and sequential administration of PCV13 in people aged ≤64 years and PPSV23 from age ≥65 years may be useful for preventing pneumonia in people with autoimmune disease according to the insurance system. In addition, PCV15 and PCV 20 will be available soon and expected for more clinical efficiency rather than current PCV13 and PPSV23.</p> Masafumi Seki Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Medical Microbiology 2022-10-03 2022-10-03 18 24 Drivers of Acute Diarrhea in Mothers of Children between 6 and 59 Months old in Kinshasa Households, Democratic Republic of the Congo <p>Acute diarrhea is a common affection, among children under 59 months old in Sub-saharan Africa and Asia known to be a global public health concern. It is responsible for significant mortality in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to identify drivers of acute diarrhea in mothers of children aged 6-59 months in Kinshasa households. This study was conducted in two health areas in Kinshasa namely Centre Supérieur Militaire Mobikisi and Hopital Militaire Central. It is a cross-sectional study of analytical type having a correlational design. In fact, 114 mothers having children aged 6 to 59 months old who had experienced at least three diarrheal episodes were selected and this research was carried out in January 2020. Independent variables were socio-economic factors and dependent variables were biological factors. Descriptive statistical analyses of which frequency and percentage were performed to describe the sampling profile. To measure the strength of association between different variables, the Pearson's Chi-Square (X<sup>2</sup>) test was used. The findings showed that 57% live in a high socio-economic environment compared to 43% who have a low socio-economic environment responsible for the occurrence of acute diarrhea. It was observed that 67.7% of participants knew the importance of access to health care services, compared to 32.3% who did not know. Meanwhile, 50.8% lived in a healthy environment versus 49.2% who had an unhealthy environment. Furthermore, 53.8% were in an acceptable demographic and biological situation, compared to 46.2% who were in a precarious demographic and biological situation. Acute diarrhea in children aged 6-59 months is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in Kinshasa city. Obstacles to effective care are related to the lack of quality service provision. Policy makers must therefore put in place interventions to address these challenges in order to reduce infant morbidity and mortality in this area.</p> Jacques M. Kanika Oscar K. Nsutier Judith G. Schepers Désiré L. Nsobani Kulembidila E. Nsopa Abonedje F. Mboni Lunga M. Claudine R. Tshiama Gédéon N. Bongo Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Medical Microbiology 2022-05-06 2022-05-06 1 12 Probiotics and Intestinal Microbiome: A Review of Literature <p>Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics modify various aspects of local and systemic immune function in multiple experimental models. However, their impact and mechanisms of action are not known across all products or noticed in every population studied, and impacts on <em>in vitro, ex vivo</em>, or other measures of immune function do not necessarily result in an impact on infection and illness <em>in vivo</em>. Studies have discussed that intestinal microbiota has an essential role in enhancing the immune system against viruses. The regulatory impact of the intestinal microbiota on viral infection is connected with local and systemic immune responses and plays a part in congenital and adaptive immune responses. The microbiota composition critically modulates the production of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and antibody responses following influenza virus infection. The intestinal microbiota has an important role in the stabilizing of immune homeostasis by augmenting the integrity of the barrier functions of the gut mucosa, which is a crucial aspect of systemic immunity. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota can influence organismal immunity locally and systemically, proximally, and distally. Studying the possible mechanism by which the intestinal microbiota maintains host immunity can provide a clearer understanding of the occurrence and development of diseases.</p> Hadeer Abdel-Aleem Hassan Mohamed Tawfik Mohamed Nazmy Farris Rasha Samir Mohamed Nabil Badawy Al Ashram Mina Mikhail Nessim Mohamed Farouk Allam Copyright (c) 2022 World Journal of Medical Microbiology 2022-10-24 2022-10-24 25 29