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Open Access October 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Ivermectin for Treatment of COVID-19?

Abstract Many attempts have been made to repurpose existing and approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. This involves anti-malarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which have been shown to be less successful than initially believed, with a substantial risk of often fatal complications and interactions. This also involves Remdesivir, which has been shown to [...] Read more.
Many attempts have been made to repurpose existing and approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. This involves anti-malarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which have been shown to be less successful than initially believed, with a substantial risk of often fatal complications and interactions. This also involves Remdesivir, which has been shown to decrease recovery time significantly in hospitalized patients. However, for patients who are not yet hospitalized, there is no currently accepted treatment. Treating patients before they need to be admitted or even prophylactically could greatly decrease the load on hospitals, protect healthcare workers and reduce the spread of COVID-19. An in-vitro study indicated that Ivermectin was dynamic against COVID-19-infected cell. Ivermectin has antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer, immunomodulatory properties. This drug could reduce the viral load in COVID-9 infected patients, with potential effect on disease progression and spread. Therefore, Ivermectin may be a therapeutic choice for treatment of COVID-19, however, there is still a lack of evidence-based studies to support ivermectin treatment of patients with COVID-19.
Opinion
Open Access September 12, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Role of Probiotics for Treatment of Psoriasis?

Abstract Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting 125 million people worldwide. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis affecting up to 90% of the patients and is characterized by well-demarcated, symmetric, and erythematous plaques with overlying silvery scales that may be painful or itchy. Psoriasis may also affect the joints; increase the risk of [...] Read more.
Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting 125 million people worldwide. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis affecting up to 90% of the patients and is characterized by well-demarcated, symmetric, and erythematous plaques with overlying silvery scales that may be painful or itchy. Psoriasis may also affect the joints; increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, uveitis, certain cancers and an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Both the skin and the gut microbiome can modulate the development and progression of psoriasis. A connection between the microbiome and immunological mechanisms are antimicrobial peptides, which regulate the microbiome at interfaces and, as antigens, can trigger psoriasis. Few studies were conducted to demonstrate the effect of probiotics on different diseases, as they are living microorganisms that confer a health benefit when administrated in adequate amounts. The effects of administering probiotics include the stabilization of the gut bacterial community and the restoration of “signature” of bacterial microbiota, which is a result of lowering the pH, producing bacteriocins, altering microRNA (miRNAs), competing with pathogens for certain nutrients and improving the gut barrier function. Probiotics counter weight aggressive commensals in the body and reinforce the barrier function of the epithelium while also contributing to the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses of the host under healthy or pathogenic conditions. Several clinical trials were conducted based on those findings to examine the role of probiotics in psoriasis, but till now there is no evidence of their efficacy.
Mini Review
Open Access March 26, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Role of Ivermectin in Management of COVID-19

Abstract The pandemic corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by (SARS-CoV-2) a single stranded-RNA virus, has been spread rapidly worldwide with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Few months after the spread of the pandemic, few medications have proven to be efficient in human clinical trials. Several antiviral drugs have been used outside the scope of their initial medical use, such as lopinavir, [...] Read more.
The pandemic corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by (SARS-CoV-2) a single stranded-RNA virus, has been spread rapidly worldwide with high rate of morbidity and mortality. Few months after the spread of the pandemic, few medications have proven to be efficient in human clinical trials. Several antiviral drugs have been used outside the scope of their initial medical use, such as lopinavir, hydroxychloroquine or azithromycin. Recent researches were done to show the efficacy of ivermectin in reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA within 2 days. The use of ivermectin in in vitro studies has proven its efficacy against Corona virus. Based on the potency of ivermectin in in vitro studies, various clinical trials including patients infected with COVID-19 have been started; most of them have not been completed yet. Since the way how the virus infects the cells in vitro and in vivo is different, a decisive comment about how the ivermectin could exactly be beneficial to the patients has not been proven yet. Nevertheless, if ivermectin is compared to the other therapeutic treatments available for COVID-19 management, ivermectin has proved to have leverage over them. New randomized controlled clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of ivermectin the management of COVID-19 are strongly and urgently needed.
Mini Review
Open Access February 22, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Melatonin could be used for Treatment of COVID-19?

Abstract Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a broad family of potentially serious RNA viruses that are now causing an outbreak of respiratory disease known as CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19). Melatonin is a pineal hormone that is predominantly produced and released at night from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin and its metabolites are also important in immunomodulation, and they have antioxidative properties due to [...] Read more.
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a broad family of potentially serious RNA viruses that are now causing an outbreak of respiratory disease known as CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19). Melatonin is a pineal hormone that is predominantly produced and released at night from the amino acid tryptophan. Melatonin and its metabolites are also important in immunomodulation, and they have antioxidative properties due to their capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species both directly and indirectly. COVID-19 leads to changes of altered consciousness levels in about 15% of hospitalized patients, starting from somnolence to disorientation, delirium, stupor, and coma. Melatonin can decrease the molecules that cause delirium in the elderly and central respiratory depression, such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics. Melatonin may help alleviate infection-induced acute respiratory distress as well as its diverse effects, which include anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immune-enhancing properties. Its supplemental dose may be able to prevent SARS-COV-2 infections by reversing aerobic glycolysis via suppression of both HIF-1 and mTOR, allowing pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity to be suppressed and acetyl-coenzyme A to be produced. When mitochondrion-produced and parenteral melatonin are combined, the cytokine storm is reduced, and COVID-19 infection-induced damage is alleviated. In conclusion, melatonin could have an important role in the management of COVID-19.
Mini Review

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Keyword:   Ghada Essam El-Din Amin

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