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Open Access October 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Post COVID-19 Symptoms?

Abstract The SARS-COV-2 rapid spread caused an international public health emergency with unprecedented rates of morbidity and mortality. Post COVID-19 condition occurs as a spectrum of symptoms that present four or more weeks after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Most published data to date state 50-70% of hospitalized patients experienced at least one post-acute COVID-19 symptom up to 3 months after [...] Read more.
The SARS-COV-2 rapid spread caused an international public health emergency with unprecedented rates of morbidity and mortality. Post COVID-19 condition occurs as a spectrum of symptoms that present four or more weeks after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Most published data to date state 50-70% of hospitalized patients experienced at least one post-acute COVID-19 symptom up to 3 months after discharge. Commonly reported symptoms include; neurocognitive post COVID-19 (fatigue, dizziness, inattention, and brain fog), respiratory post-COVID (dyspnea, chest pain, and cough), and mental health related symptoms (insomnia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder). Additionally, gastro-intestinal post COVID-19 (diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain) along with decline in quality of life and decreased ability to perform activities of daily living were reported. The response to post COVID-19 symptoms is still in its infancy despite being an emerging crisis as scientific evidence and robust data are nonetheless required for clear definition, identification of time frame, classification and management of the condition. New studies are needed to identify total and individual incidence/prevalence rates of different clinical presentations of post COVID-19 symptoms. These future studies will help us to o improve early recognition of long term symptoms after acute infection of COVID-19.
Mini Review
Open Access October 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Ivermectin for Treatment of COVID-19?

Abstract Many attempts have been made to repurpose existing and approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. This involves anti-malarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which have been shown to be less successful than initially believed, with a substantial risk of often fatal complications and interactions. This also involves Remdesivir, which has been shown to [...] Read more.
Many attempts have been made to repurpose existing and approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. This involves anti-malarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which have been shown to be less successful than initially believed, with a substantial risk of often fatal complications and interactions. This also involves Remdesivir, which has been shown to decrease recovery time significantly in hospitalized patients. However, for patients who are not yet hospitalized, there is no currently accepted treatment. Treating patients before they need to be admitted or even prophylactically could greatly decrease the load on hospitals, protect healthcare workers and reduce the spread of COVID-19. An in-vitro study indicated that Ivermectin was dynamic against COVID-19-infected cell. Ivermectin has antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer, immunomodulatory properties. This drug could reduce the viral load in COVID-9 infected patients, with potential effect on disease progression and spread. Therefore, Ivermectin may be a therapeutic choice for treatment of COVID-19, however, there is still a lack of evidence-based studies to support ivermectin treatment of patients with COVID-19.
Opinion
Open Access October 24, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Probiotics and Intestinal Microbiome: A Review of Literature

Abstract Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics modify various aspects of local and systemic immune function in multiple experimental models. However, their impact and mechanisms of action are not known across all products or noticed in every population studied, and impacts on in vitro, ex vivo, or other measures of immune function do not necessarily result in an impact on infection and illness in vivo. [...] Read more.
Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics modify various aspects of local and systemic immune function in multiple experimental models. However, their impact and mechanisms of action are not known across all products or noticed in every population studied, and impacts on in vitro, ex vivo, or other measures of immune function do not necessarily result in an impact on infection and illness in vivo. Studies have discussed that intestinal microbiota has an essential role in enhancing the immune system against viruses. The regulatory impact of the intestinal microbiota on viral infection is connected with local and systemic immune responses and plays a part in congenital and adaptive immune responses. The microbiota composition critically modulates the production of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and antibody responses following influenza virus infection. The intestinal microbiota has an important role in the stabilizing of immune homeostasis by augmenting the integrity of the barrier functions of the gut mucosa, which is a crucial aspect of systemic immunity. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota can influence organismal immunity locally and systemically, proximally, and distally. Studying the possible mechanism by which the intestinal microbiota maintains host immunity can provide a clearer understanding of the occurrence and development of diseases.
Essay
Open Access September 12, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Role of Probiotics for Treatment of Psoriasis?

Abstract Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting 125 million people worldwide. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis affecting up to 90% of the patients and is characterized by well-demarcated, symmetric, and erythematous plaques with overlying silvery scales that may be painful or itchy. Psoriasis may also affect the joints; increase the risk of [...] Read more.
Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder affecting 125 million people worldwide. The most common type of psoriasis is plaque psoriasis affecting up to 90% of the patients and is characterized by well-demarcated, symmetric, and erythematous plaques with overlying silvery scales that may be painful or itchy. Psoriasis may also affect the joints; increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, uveitis, certain cancers and an increase in the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Both the skin and the gut microbiome can modulate the development and progression of psoriasis. A connection between the microbiome and immunological mechanisms are antimicrobial peptides, which regulate the microbiome at interfaces and, as antigens, can trigger psoriasis. Few studies were conducted to demonstrate the effect of probiotics on different diseases, as they are living microorganisms that confer a health benefit when administrated in adequate amounts. The effects of administering probiotics include the stabilization of the gut bacterial community and the restoration of “signature” of bacterial microbiota, which is a result of lowering the pH, producing bacteriocins, altering microRNA (miRNAs), competing with pathogens for certain nutrients and improving the gut barrier function. Probiotics counter weight aggressive commensals in the body and reinforce the barrier function of the epithelium while also contributing to the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses of the host under healthy or pathogenic conditions. Several clinical trials were conducted based on those findings to examine the role of probiotics in psoriasis, but till now there is no evidence of their efficacy.
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Keyword:   Mohamed Farouk Allam

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