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Open Access October 24, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Probiotics and Intestinal Microbiome: A Review of Literature

Abstract Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics modify various aspects of local and systemic immune function in multiple experimental models. However, their impact and mechanisms of action are not known across all products or noticed in every population studied, and impacts on in vitro, ex vivo, or other measures of immune function do not necessarily result in an impact on infection and illness in vivo. [...] Read more.
Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics modify various aspects of local and systemic immune function in multiple experimental models. However, their impact and mechanisms of action are not known across all products or noticed in every population studied, and impacts on in vitro, ex vivo, or other measures of immune function do not necessarily result in an impact on infection and illness in vivo. Studies have discussed that intestinal microbiota has an essential role in enhancing the immune system against viruses. The regulatory impact of the intestinal microbiota on viral infection is connected with local and systemic immune responses and plays a part in congenital and adaptive immune responses. The microbiota composition critically modulates the production of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and antibody responses following influenza virus infection. The intestinal microbiota has an important role in the stabilizing of immune homeostasis by augmenting the integrity of the barrier functions of the gut mucosa, which is a crucial aspect of systemic immunity. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota can influence organismal immunity locally and systemically, proximally, and distally. Studying the possible mechanism by which the intestinal microbiota maintains host immunity can provide a clearer understanding of the occurrence and development of diseases.
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Open Access December 16, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Role of Colchicine in Management of COVID-19?

Abstract CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted a great burden on the health and economic systems worldwide. One of the most important factors that affect the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 is the occurrence of hyperstimulation of the immune system resulting in “cytokine storm”. Similar to SARS-CoV, an intracellular complex called nod like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) [...] Read more.
CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has exerted a great burden on the health and economic systems worldwide. One of the most important factors that affect the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 is the occurrence of hyperstimulation of the immune system resulting in “cytokine storm”. Similar to SARS-CoV, an intracellular complex called nod like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was found to be activated by SARS-CoV-2, then in turn stimulates several interleukins and initiates the inflammatory cascade. In addition, other inflammatory mediators such as interferons e.g., IFN-α, and IFN-γ, interleukins e.g., IL-1β, IL-12, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), and chemokines e.g., CCL2, CXCL10 have been reported in severely ill patients. These mediators represent the corner stone in developing cytokine storm that results in uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction with subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple organ failure and eventually death. Based on its anti-inflammatory effects, colchicine has also gained attention to be utilized in the management of COVID-19 patient. Colchicine exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of formation of microtubules which is considered an essential step in several cellular processes such as division, signalling, and migration. Also, colchicine affects the cytokine cascade by inhibiting IL-1β leading to reduction in neutrophils recruitment, free radicles production and inflammasome stimulation. This raises the concerns about the effectiveness of colchicine in COVID-19 treatment and the possibility of providing an improvement of the clinical course of the disease.
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Keyword:   Rasha Samir

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