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Open Access March 08, 2024 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Analysis of Toxic Contaminants in Agriculture: Educational Strategies to Avoid Their Influence on Food

Abstract A diagnosis of the current state of the crops is made regarding the control of weeds, use of pesticides, fungicides; with an assessment of the state of the plant covers in the crop, and its control by different types of herbicides, and we detected a high loss of biological diversity; and some of these compounds are mentioned due to their high toxicity. Similarly, the use of pesticides and [...] Read more.
A diagnosis of the current state of the crops is made regarding the control of weeds, use of pesticides, fungicides; with an assessment of the state of the plant covers in the crop, and its control by different types of herbicides, and we detected a high loss of biological diversity; and some of these compounds are mentioned due to their high toxicity. Similarly, the use of pesticides and fungicides is discussed due to their repercussions on health. In order to avoid the unhealthiness caused by the applications of these products, phytosanitary and educational control strategies are proposed; promoting the inspection of fruit and vegetable markets, and modifying the contents in higher professional and university education. To this end, we propose an active teaching methodology, through which the student acquires skills and responsibility for the use of chemical agents in agriculture, which serves to prevent the entry of these contaminants into the food chain. Of the different polluting chemical agents, in the case of herbicides we highlight Oxyfluorfen and Glyphosate with high toxicity and whose consumption is very high. In the case of pesticides and fungicides, among others are Organochlorine compounds, which have been detected in blood, and Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform, considered potent hepatotoxic and neurotoxic. The basic objective of this study is the awareness and acquisition of knowledge by future teachers about polluting agents, which will subsequently have an impact on society.
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Open Access July 04, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Flora and Phytosociological of Plant in Al-Dawaimah of Palestine

Abstract Al-Dawaimah is an ancient Canaanite Palestinian village, occupied in 1948 by Israel, and belongs to inframediterranean to thermomediterranean thermotype and arid, semi-arid, and dry ombrotype. The study presents, a region rich in many plant vascular, and it is part of the Palestinian coast, North Africa, the Negev and the Sinai desert, in addition to the mountainous hills of Palestine located west of the Hebron, Jordan River and the Dead Sea. The objective is to identify and update the flora and vegetation in the area of Al-Dawaimah and its neighboring areas in west Hebron of Palestine. Methodology: More than 270 plant specimens have been taken from Al-Dawaimah and surroundings areas, using Braun-Blanquet, Van der Maarel and Salvador River Martinez methods to study the flora, and phytosociological plants, and 214 x 10 plants plots distributed in area were studied. Result and discussion: Three different plant communities were identified, in different environments between arid, dry- subhumid ombrotype and infra-thermomediterranean thermotype, and different soils as (carbon substrates as brown ruinsenas and terra rossa lands, limestone and others), where more than 214 species of plants have been found, of which 45 (20.02%) are endemic species, and in Raunkiaer's life system, trees represent were, (86; 40.18% trees), (34; 15.88% shrubs), (51; 23.83% chamaephytes), (10; 4.67% geophytes), (16; 7.47% phanerophytes), and (12; 6.54% hemicryptophytes). Conclusion: In Al-Dawaimah area, syntaxonomical performance of these associations are: Quercetalia ilicis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier 1934. Rhamno lycioidis-Quercion cocciferae Rivas Goday ex Rivas-Martinez 1975. 1. Rhamnus palaestinae- Quercetum calliprini ass. nova., Pistacio lentisci -Rhamnetalia alaterni Rivas-Martínez 1975. 2. Ceratonio siliquae -Pistacetum lentisci ass. nova., Junipero phoeniceae- Pinon acutisquamae A.V. Pérez et Cabezudo in A.V. Pérez et al. 1988 corr. Rivas-Martinez. et al. 2002. Pinetalia halepensis Biondi et al. 2014. 3. Junipero phoeniceae- Pinetum halepensis [...] Read more.
Al-Dawaimah is an ancient Canaanite Palestinian village, occupied in 1948 by Israel, and belongs to inframediterranean to thermomediterranean thermotype and arid, semi-arid, and dry ombrotype. The study presents, a region rich in many plant vascular, and it is part of the Palestinian coast, North Africa, the Negev and the Sinai desert, in addition to the mountainous hills of Palestine located west of the Hebron, Jordan River and the Dead Sea. The objective is to identify and update the flora and vegetation in the area of Al-Dawaimah and its neighboring areas in west Hebron of Palestine. Methodology: More than 270 plant specimens have been taken from Al-Dawaimah and surroundings areas, using Braun-Blanquet, Van der Maarel and Salvador River Martinez methods to study the flora, and phytosociological plants, and 214 x 10 plants plots distributed in area were studied. Result and discussion: Three different plant communities were identified, in different environments between arid, dry- subhumid ombrotype and infra-thermomediterranean thermotype, and different soils as (carbon substrates as brown ruinsenas and terra rossa lands, limestone and others), where more than 214 species of plants have been found, of which 45 (20.02%) are endemic species, and in Raunkiaer's life system, trees represent were, (86; 40.18% trees), (34; 15.88% shrubs), (51; 23.83% chamaephytes), (10; 4.67% geophytes), (16; 7.47% phanerophytes), and (12; 6.54% hemicryptophytes). Conclusion: In Al-Dawaimah area, syntaxonomical performance of these associations are: Quercetalia ilicis Br.-Bl. ex Molinier 1934. Rhamno lycioidis-Quercion cocciferae Rivas Goday ex Rivas-Martinez 1975. 1. Rhamnus palaestinae- Quercetum calliprini ass. nova., Pistacio lentisci -Rhamnetalia alaterni Rivas-Martínez 1975. 2. Ceratonio siliquae -Pistacetum lentisci ass. nova., Junipero phoeniceae- Pinon acutisquamae A.V. Pérez et Cabezudo in A.V. Pérez et al. 1988 corr. Rivas-Martinez. et al. 2002. Pinetalia halepensis Biondi et al. 2014. 3. Junipero phoeniceae- Pinetum halepensis ass. nova.
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Open Access February 09, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Endemic Hemicryptophyte Grasslands of the High Mountains of the Caribbean

Abstract Although there are numerous studies on the floristic composition of the Andean and Caribbean grasslands, there are limited information from a phytosociological point of view. This work therefore aims to highlight the differences in this important vegetation type in these two biodiversity hotspots to gain a better understanding of their floristic and vegetational richness. The floristic composition of Andean grasslands (Ecuador) and the island of Hispaniola is also studied. The reason for this comparative analysis of Andean and Caribbean territories is their tropical character and their bioclimatic similarities. The comparative analysis of Peruvian Andean and Colombian grasslands is based on floristic knowledge from the literature, our inventories on the island of Hispaniola, and the works of Peguero. We applied the phytosociological methodology of Braun-Blanquet and the code of phytosociological nomenclature. We performed a statistical analysis to verify the differences between both community types using the statistical packages PAST© and CAP3. The comparative analysis of Andean and Caribbean grasslands shows a clear floristic and biogeographical differentiation and reveals that the only ecological character they share is their high-mountain attribute. In the Caribbean these communities are found only on the island of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) in the Central biogeographic sector, Central subprovince, Hispaniola province. These grasslands are exclusive to Hispaniola and have a high rate of endemics. We propose the following new syntaxa: the association Hyperico constanzae-Danthonietum domingensis, the alliance Hieracio domingensis-Deschampsion domingensis, the order Danthonietalia domingensis, and the class Deschampsio-Danthonietea domingensis. [...] Read more.
Although there are numerous studies on the floristic composition of the Andean and Caribbean grasslands, there are limited information from a phytosociological point of view. This work therefore aims to highlight the differences in this important vegetation type in these two biodiversity hotspots to gain a better understanding of their floristic and vegetational richness. The floristic composition of Andean grasslands (Ecuador) and the island of Hispaniola is also studied. The reason for this comparative analysis of Andean and Caribbean territories is their tropical character and their bioclimatic similarities. The comparative analysis of Peruvian Andean and Colombian grasslands is based on floristic knowledge from the literature, our inventories on the island of Hispaniola, and the works of Peguero. We applied the phytosociological methodology of Braun-Blanquet and the code of phytosociological nomenclature. We performed a statistical analysis to verify the differences between both community types using the statistical packages PAST© and CAP3. The comparative analysis of Andean and Caribbean grasslands shows a clear floristic and biogeographical differentiation and reveals that the only ecological character they share is their high-mountain attribute. In the Caribbean these communities are found only on the island of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) in the Central biogeographic sector, Central subprovince, Hispaniola province. These grasslands are exclusive to Hispaniola and have a high rate of endemics. We propose the following new syntaxa: the association Hyperico constanzae-Danthonietum domingensis, the alliance Hieracio domingensis-Deschampsion domingensis, the order Danthonietalia domingensis, and the class Deschampsio-Danthonietea domingensis. We found high biodiversity values for Andean and Caribbean areas. This is due to the intense anthropic activity on the island of Hispaniola, which has led to a high percentage of naturalized plants.
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Open Access November 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Knowledge for a Better Conservation: Syntaxonomic Review of Caribbean Pine Forests (Cuba, Hispaniola)

Abstract A phytosociological review is carried out of the pine forest formations on the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola (Caribbean), due to the diversity of soils and environments. We collected 10 plant associations belonging to the class Byrsonimo-Pinetea caribaea growing on siliceous, calcareous and sandy substrates and 21 associations on special, serpentine and ophite substrates and on ultramafic rocks belonging to the class Caseario crassinervis-Pinetea cubensis, exclusive to Cuba; while the association of pine forests on serpentines in Hispaniola is included in the class Phyllantho orbicularis-Neobracetea valenzuelanae with a Caribbean distribution. The comparative phytosociological and statistical study reveals phytosociological anomalies in the inclusion of various syntaxa, and in the description of other syntaxa according to the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (ICPN). We therefore propose a change in status for several of the subassociations described: subass. ilicetosum repandae: syn. var. con Ilex repanda; subass. schmidtottietosum shaferi: syn. var. with Schmidtottia shaferi; subass. acrosynanthetosum trachyphylli: syn. var. with Acrosynanthus trachyphyllus; subass. psychotrietosum grandis: var. con Psychotria grandis; subass. notodonetosum roigii: syn. var. with Notodon roigii. We also propose a nomen novum: jaquinietosum oxhyphyllae Reyes & Acosta 2012 ex Cano et al. hoc loco [...] Read more.
A phytosociological review is carried out of the pine forest formations on the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola (Caribbean), due to the diversity of soils and environments. We collected 10 plant associations belonging to the class Byrsonimo-Pinetea caribaea growing on siliceous, calcareous and sandy substrates and 21 associations on special, serpentine and ophite substrates and on ultramafic rocks belonging to the class Caseario crassinervis-Pinetea cubensis, exclusive to Cuba; while the association of pine forests on serpentines in Hispaniola is included in the class Phyllantho orbicularis-Neobracetea valenzuelanae with a Caribbean distribution. The comparative phytosociological and statistical study reveals phytosociological anomalies in the inclusion of various syntaxa, and in the description of other syntaxa according to the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (ICPN). We therefore propose a change in status for several of the subassociations described: subass. ilicetosum repandae: syn. var. con Ilex repanda; subass. schmidtottietosum shaferi: syn. var. with Schmidtottia shaferi; subass. acrosynanthetosum trachyphylli: syn. var. with Acrosynanthus trachyphyllus; subass. psychotrietosum grandis: var. con Psychotria grandis; subass. notodonetosum roigii: syn. var. with Notodon roigii. We also propose a nomen novum: jaquinietosum oxhyphyllae Reyes & Acosta 2012 ex Cano et al. hoc loco.
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Keyword:  Ana Cano-Ortiz

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