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Open Access February 27, 2024 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Clinical characteristics of patients with multiple respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic period

Abstract Respiratory virus co-infections have been suggested to happen frequently and exacerbate patients’ conditions, but little is known about the detailed rates and the combinations of viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic period. A total of 255 symptomatic patients who underwent multiplex PCR tests were analyzed, and it was found that 6 (6/255=2.4%) patients were infected with multiple viruses. The [...] Read more.
Respiratory virus co-infections have been suggested to happen frequently and exacerbate patients’ conditions, but little is known about the detailed rates and the combinations of viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic period. A total of 255 symptomatic patients who underwent multiplex PCR tests were analyzed, and it was found that 6 (6/255=2.4%) patients were infected with multiple viruses. The patients ranged in age from 1 to 38 years, and one female patient was pregnant. Of the 6 patients, 4 had fever, and 5 had human rhinovirus/enterovirus and another virus. These data suggested that the rate of respiratory virus co-infection was low, and the combination of SAS-CoV-2 and other viruses was rare even during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Open Access November 20, 2023 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Ensitrelvir improved SARS-CoV-2 viral titers of COVID-19 patients refractory to remdesivir

Abstract Background: The titers of SARS-COV-2 antigens are frequently used as markers of viral activity and threshold for release from quarantine and treatment. COVID-19 patients were treated with several antiviral agents, including remdesivir (RDV) and ensitrelvir (ESV), which is a novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent recently suggested to have strong antiviral activity. Cases: We present the cases [...] Read more.
Background: The titers of SARS-COV-2 antigens are frequently used as markers of viral activity and threshold for release from quarantine and treatment. COVID-19 patients were treated with several antiviral agents, including remdesivir (RDV) and ensitrelvir (ESV), which is a novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent recently suggested to have strong antiviral activity. Cases: We present the cases of two patients whose SARS-CoV-2 antigens were successfully decreased by oral administration of ESV after they could not be decreased by RDV drip infusion. Case 1 was a 74-year-old man who was admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection and had been infected by the virus a month earlier and relapsed twice. He had been treated with rituximab for diffuse B cell lymphoma and not received vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. RDV was administered intravenously two weeks earlier and again 4 days earlier, but it failed to control the infection, and he was transferred to our hospital (day 1). Intravenous RDV was restarted on day 1, but viral antigens remained high until day 5. The RDV was then switched to oral ESV, and viral antigen titers were successfully decreased on days 8, 10, and 12. Case 2 was an 81-year-old man who was admitted with SARS-CoV-2 infection on day 0. He had heart failure and diabetes mellitus, and had not received vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Intravenous RDV was started on day 1, but viral antigens were still high until day 8. He was then switched from RDV to oral ESV, and viral antigen titers were successfully decreased on day 11. Conclusions: These cases suggest that ESV might be more effective than RDV for reducing viral activity, and it is easy to administer orally.
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Open Access October 31, 2023 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Effectiveness of Probiotics for Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Abstract Background: Recently specific interactions and crosslinks between the gut microbiota and the lungs have been recognized, particularly with regard to respiratory immune and anti-microbial reactions. This is often known as the “gut-lung axis” or “a common mucosal immunological system”. Objective: The aim of the current systematic review was to evaluate evidence, from published clinical trials and cohort studies, if probiotics may have an effect in improving and managing COVID-19 symptoms. Materials and methods: The available studies were searched through a comprehensive search of electronic databases that included PubMed, Science Direct, Scirus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), using a combination of the following keywords: “COVID-19" OR [...] Read more.
Background: Recently specific interactions and crosslinks between the gut microbiota and the lungs have been recognized, particularly with regard to respiratory immune and anti-microbial reactions. This is often known as the “gut-lung axis” or “a common mucosal immunological system”. Objective: The aim of the current systematic review was to evaluate evidence, from published clinical trials and cohort studies, if probiotics may have an effect in improving and managing COVID-19 symptoms. Materials and methods: The available studies were searched through a comprehensive search of electronic databases that included PubMed, Science Direct, Scirus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), using a combination of the following keywords: “COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" AND "Microbiota" OR "Probiotics” OR “Gut Lung Axis”. The literature was reviewed until August 31, 2022. Results: Only 3 studies were included. One of them evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in COVID-19 patients to obtain complete remission of all signs and symptoms. The clinical trial proves that probiotics have a significant effect on complete remission of all signs and symptoms of COVID-19 patients with statistical significant difference. Only one clinical trial out of the 3 included studies had evaluated the need for O2 therapy during the study between the probiotics and control groups, but without statistical significant difference. No statistical significant difference between the probiotics group and placebo group was observed regarding fatal prognosis during the only clinical trial that measured death as an outcome. Conclusion: We couldn’t judge on these results as they are insufficient data for pooling and meta-analysis. However, what we can say is “Most probably Probiotics have no role in treatment of COVID-19 infection”.
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Meta-Analysis
Open Access October 31, 2023 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Role of Probiotics and Colchicine in COVID-19 Management?

Abstract Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging human disease caused by a novel coronavirus, causing a global pandemic crisis. Probiotics and/or colchicine may be considered as options for treatment since they have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the current review was to assess the effectiveness of probiotic supplements and [...] Read more.
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging human disease caused by a novel coronavirus, causing a global pandemic crisis. Probiotics and/or colchicine may be considered as options for treatment since they have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of the current review was to assess the effectiveness of probiotic supplements and colchicine on symptoms, duration, and progression of mild and moderate cases of COVID-19 infection. Review: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the United States with 182 participants who were randomly assigned to receive daily oral probiotic (Lactobacillus rhamnosus) LGG or placebo for 28 days. The study indicated that LGG is well-tolerated and is associated with a delay in the onset of COVID-19 infection, a reduction in the incidence of symptoms, and alterations in the structure of the gut microbiome when administered as post-exposure prophylaxis within seven days of exposure. Colchicine may lessen mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis. Conclusion: Probiotics and/or colchicine may be viable treatment options for COVID-19 patients. To examine the efficacy of probiotics and colchicine in the treatment of COVID-19, it is necessary to conduct additional clinical trials and provide clinicians with evidence, as there are currently insufficient studies to support this conclusion.
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