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Open Access October 08, 2023 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Correlation of Thyroid Gland Functions with Menstrual Patterns amongst Infertile and Fertile Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in North-Central Nigeria

Abstract A regular menstrual cycle is important to maintain a woman’s fertility. This cycle has been linked to optimal function of the thyroid gland in the production of its hormones. Disturbance of thyroid gland functions could result to female infertility due to changes in menstrual patterns. Aim of this research was to determine the correlation between thyroid gland functions and menstrual patterns amongst infertile and fertile women attending a tertiary care hospital in North-Central Nigeria. This comparative, cross-sectional study recruited 106 women who visited the hospital's Gynecology Clinic and Family Planning Clinic. 53 of the 106 patients were women with a history suggestive of either primary or secondary infertility and the remaining 53 women with no history of infertility served as the control. A well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on the patients’ menstrual patterns. Anthropometric data were measured and obtained. Collected blood samples were analyzed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique to determine the serum levels of thyroid hormones. All obtained data was analyzed, and the level of significance was set at p<0.05, at a 95% confidence interval. 33 patients had menstrual anomalies (78.8% infertile women; 21.2% fertile women who served as control, p=0.012). The incidence of menstrual anomalies in the infertile women group and control group was 7.5% versus 0.0% for amenorrhea; 20.8% versus 5.7% for menorrhagia; 9.4% versus 7.5% for oligomenorrhea; 7.5% versus 0.0% for hypomenorrhea; nil polymenorrhea for both groups; and 50.9% versus 86.8% for normal menstrual patterns. Ten (9.43%) patients were diagnosed with thyroid dysfunctions (80% in infertile group; 20% in control group, p [...] Read more.
A regular menstrual cycle is important to maintain a woman’s fertility. This cycle has been linked to optimal function of the thyroid gland in the production of its hormones. Disturbance of thyroid gland functions could result to female infertility due to changes in menstrual patterns. Aim of this research was to determine the correlation between thyroid gland functions and menstrual patterns amongst infertile and fertile women attending a tertiary care hospital in North-Central Nigeria. This comparative, cross-sectional study recruited 106 women who visited the hospital's Gynecology Clinic and Family Planning Clinic. 53 of the 106 patients were women with a history suggestive of either primary or secondary infertility and the remaining 53 women with no history of infertility served as the control. A well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on the patients’ menstrual patterns. Anthropometric data were measured and obtained. Collected blood samples were analyzed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique to determine the serum levels of thyroid hormones. All obtained data was analyzed, and the level of significance was set at p<0.05, at a 95% confidence interval. 33 patients had menstrual anomalies (78.8% infertile women; 21.2% fertile women who served as control, p=0.012). The incidence of menstrual anomalies in the infertile women group and control group was 7.5% versus 0.0% for amenorrhea; 20.8% versus 5.7% for menorrhagia; 9.4% versus 7.5% for oligomenorrhea; 7.5% versus 0.0% for hypomenorrhea; nil polymenorrhea for both groups; and 50.9% versus 86.8% for normal menstrual patterns. Ten (9.43%) patients were diagnosed with thyroid dysfunctions (80% in infertile group; 20% in control group, p=0.046). Six (18.2%) out of 33 women with menstrual anomalies were diagnosed with thyroid dysfunction. Five (83.3%) out of these 6 women with both menstrual anomalies and diagnosed thyroid dysfunction were infertile while only one (16.7%) was fertile. Thyroid gland dysfunction correlates strongly with abnormal menstrual patterns, which implies that it is vital to evaluate thyroid hormone levels in blood serum in the course of treating menstrual irregularities and female infertility. Early detection of thyroid dysfunction is important in achieving a positive treatment outcome for female infertility.
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Open Access April 24, 2024 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Optimization of Delirium Care in Adult Patients with Cancer: A Comprehensive and Integrative Review of Efficacy and Patient Outcomes

Abstract Delirium is a major complication most commonly observed in patients with advanced cancer. However, despite its prevalence, the early diagnosis, management, and prevention of this condition have not seen significant progress. Aim of this research is to provide insights into the prevalence of delirium, the optimization of interventions for managing delirium symptoms, their effectiveness and the [...] Read more.
Delirium is a major complication most commonly observed in patients with advanced cancer. However, despite its prevalence, the early diagnosis, management, and prevention of this condition have not seen significant progress. Aim of this research is to provide insights into the prevalence of delirium, the optimization of interventions for managing delirium symptoms, their effectiveness and the impact of underlying factors on the reversibility of delirium in advanced cancer patients receiving palliative care. The review involved systematic searches of relevant databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health, and PsychInfo using refined search terms. Eight publications out of 614 studies originally searched were selected and critically reviewed. Their quality was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Tool for Case Series. Data abstraction and content analysis were performed to synthesize the findings. Delirium is prevalent among advanced cancer patients in palliative care, with rates ranging from 10.3% to 24.1%. Pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological interventions showed effectiveness in reducing delirium symptoms. Delirium was found to be reversible through palliative care interventions, antipsychotic medications, and exercise therapy. Effective delirium management is crucial in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. This review emphasizes the importance of subtype-specific treatments, standardized guidelines, and long-term follow-up studies. Implementing evidence-based individualized approaches to delirium management can optimize treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes in patients as well as improve the quality of care. Tailored interventions, standardized protocols, and further research are hereby recommended.
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Keyword:  Francis Chigozie Udeh

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