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Open Access December 28, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of COVID-19 Suspect Cases at the Triage of Ain Shams University Hospitals during the First Wave

Abstract Background: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with unexplained viral pneumonia was identified in Wuhan, China. Since March 11th 2020 the WHO declared COVID 19 as a pandemic with rising number of cases all over the world. Aim of the work: The aim of the study was to measure the percentages of possible, probable and provisionally excluded cases among the first 500 [...] Read more.
Background: In December 2019, a cluster of patients with unexplained viral pneumonia was identified in Wuhan, China. Since March 11th 2020 the WHO declared COVID 19 as a pandemic with rising number of cases all over the world. Aim of the work: The aim of the study was to measure the percentages of possible, probable and provisionally excluded cases among the first 500 attendants of the triage of Ain Shams University Hospital and describe their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive case series study including the first 500 patients attending the triage of Ain Shams University Hospitals from March 29th to May 31st. A constructed questionnaire in the form of a scoring system was used and data was collected through interviewing the patients after appropriate consent. Results: As regard the scoring system, 72.2% of patients had new onset of cough or old worsened cough in the previous 3 days, 59.2% had sore throat and 59% had dyspnea. Out of the 500 cases 33.2% were probable, 38.2% were possible and 28.2% were provisionally excluded. Conclusion: COVID-19 pneumonia usually occurred at an age younger than 47 years and it was more predominant in the male gender. The most common initial clinical presentations were new dry cough or chronic cough with worsening over the last 3 days, sore throat and/or runny nose and fever. Thirty-eight percent were classified as possible COVID-19 cases, and 33% were classified as probable.
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Research Article
Open Access October 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Post COVID-19 Symptoms?

Abstract The SARS-COV-2 rapid spread caused an international public health emergency with unprecedented rates of morbidity and mortality. Post COVID-19 condition occurs as a spectrum of symptoms that present four or more weeks after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Most published data to date state 50-70% of hospitalized patients experienced at least one post-acute COVID-19 symptom up to 3 months after [...] Read more.
The SARS-COV-2 rapid spread caused an international public health emergency with unprecedented rates of morbidity and mortality. Post COVID-19 condition occurs as a spectrum of symptoms that present four or more weeks after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. Most published data to date state 50-70% of hospitalized patients experienced at least one post-acute COVID-19 symptom up to 3 months after discharge. Commonly reported symptoms include; neurocognitive post COVID-19 (fatigue, dizziness, inattention, and brain fog), respiratory post-COVID (dyspnea, chest pain, and cough), and mental health related symptoms (insomnia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder). Additionally, gastro-intestinal post COVID-19 (diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain) along with decline in quality of life and decreased ability to perform activities of daily living were reported. The response to post COVID-19 symptoms is still in its infancy despite being an emerging crisis as scientific evidence and robust data are nonetheless required for clear definition, identification of time frame, classification and management of the condition. New studies are needed to identify total and individual incidence/prevalence rates of different clinical presentations of post COVID-19 symptoms. These future studies will help us to o improve early recognition of long term symptoms after acute infection of COVID-19.
Mini Review
Open Access October 25, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Ivermectin for Treatment of COVID-19?

Abstract Many attempts have been made to repurpose existing and approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. This involves anti-malarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which have been shown to be less successful than initially believed, with a substantial risk of often fatal complications and interactions. This also involves Remdesivir, which has been shown to [...] Read more.
Many attempts have been made to repurpose existing and approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. This involves anti-malarial drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, which have been shown to be less successful than initially believed, with a substantial risk of often fatal complications and interactions. This also involves Remdesivir, which has been shown to decrease recovery time significantly in hospitalized patients. However, for patients who are not yet hospitalized, there is no currently accepted treatment. Treating patients before they need to be admitted or even prophylactically could greatly decrease the load on hospitals, protect healthcare workers and reduce the spread of COVID-19. An in-vitro study indicated that Ivermectin was dynamic against COVID-19-infected cell. Ivermectin has antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer, immunomodulatory properties. This drug could reduce the viral load in COVID-9 infected patients, with potential effect on disease progression and spread. Therefore, Ivermectin may be a therapeutic choice for treatment of COVID-19, however, there is still a lack of evidence-based studies to support ivermectin treatment of patients with COVID-19.
Opinion
Open Access October 24, 2022 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Probiotics and Intestinal Microbiome: A Review of Literature

Abstract Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics modify various aspects of local and systemic immune function in multiple experimental models. However, their impact and mechanisms of action are not known across all products or noticed in every population studied, and impacts on in vitro, ex vivo, or other measures of immune function do not necessarily result in an impact on infection and illness in vivo. [...] Read more.
Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics modify various aspects of local and systemic immune function in multiple experimental models. However, their impact and mechanisms of action are not known across all products or noticed in every population studied, and impacts on in vitro, ex vivo, or other measures of immune function do not necessarily result in an impact on infection and illness in vivo. Studies have discussed that intestinal microbiota has an essential role in enhancing the immune system against viruses. The regulatory impact of the intestinal microbiota on viral infection is connected with local and systemic immune responses and plays a part in congenital and adaptive immune responses. The microbiota composition critically modulates the production of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells and antibody responses following influenza virus infection. The intestinal microbiota has an important role in the stabilizing of immune homeostasis by augmenting the integrity of the barrier functions of the gut mucosa, which is a crucial aspect of systemic immunity. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota can influence organismal immunity locally and systemically, proximally, and distally. Studying the possible mechanism by which the intestinal microbiota maintains host immunity can provide a clearer understanding of the occurrence and development of diseases.
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Keyword:  Mohamed Farouk Allam

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