Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease

Volume 1, Number 1, 2021

Open Access August 12, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Responding to the Call through Translating Science into Impact: Building an Evidence-Based Approaches to Effectively Curb Public Health Emergencies [Covid-19 Crisis]

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2021, 1(1), 12-45. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2021.010102
Abstract
COVID-19 demonstrated a global catastrophe that touched everybody, including the scientific community. As we respond and recover rapidly from this pandemic, there is an opportunity to guarantee that the fabric of our society includes sustainability, fairness, and care. However, approaches to environmental health attempt to decrease the populations burden of COVID-19,
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COVID-19 demonstrated a global catastrophe that touched everybody, including the scientific community. As we respond and recover rapidly from this pandemic, there is an opportunity to guarantee that the fabric of our society includes sustainability, fairness, and care. However, approaches to environmental health attempt to decrease the populations burden of COVID-19, toward saving patients from becoming ill along with preserving the allocation of clinical resources and public safety standards. This paper explores environmental and public health evidence-based practices toward responding to Covid-19. A literature review tried to do a deep dive through the use of various search engines such as Mendeley, Research Gate, CAB Abstract, Google Scholar, Summon, PubMed, Scopus, Hinari, Dimension, OARE Abstract, SSRN, Academia search strategy toward retrieving research publications, “grey literature” as well as reports from expert working groups. To achieve enhanced population health, it is recommended to adopt widespread evidence-based strategies, particularly in this uncertain time. As only together can evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM) can become a reality which include effective policies and practices, transparency and accountability of decisions, and equity outcomes; these are all more relevant in resource-constrained contexts, such as Nigeria. Effective and ethical EIDM though requires the production as well as use of high-quality evidence that are timely, appropriate and structured. One way to do so is through co-production. Co-production (or co-creation or co-design) of environmental/public health evidence considered as a key tool for addressing complex global crises such as the high risk of severe COVID-19 in different nations. A significant evidence-based component of environmental/public health (EBEPH) consist of decisions making based on best accessible, evidence that is peer-reviewed; using data as well as systematic information systems; community engagement in policy making; conducting sound evaluation; do a thorough program-planning frameworks; as well as disseminating what is being learned. As researchers, scientists, statisticians, journal editors, practitioners, as well as decision makers strive to improve population health, having a natural tendency toward scrutinizing the scientific literature aimed at novel research findings serving as the foundation for intervention as well as prevention programs. The main inspiration behind conducting research ought to be toward stimulating and collaborating appropriately on public/environmental health action. Hence, there is need for a “Plan B” of effective behavioural, environmental, social as well as systems interventions (BESSI) toward reducing transmission.Full article
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Review Article
Open Access November 22, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Epidemiological and Clinical Profiles of Acute Diarrhea Due Rotavirus or Associated Rotavirus and Other Pathogens in Children Aged 0-71 Months Hospitalized at Kalembe-lembe Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2021, 1(1), 66-80. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2021.165
Abstract
This research is based on a retrospective analysis of medical records filed in the archives of the emergency departments of Kalembe-lembe Hospital in Kinshasa city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study involved 324 records of patients aged 0-71 months admitted to the emergency departments and hospitalized for
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This research is based on a retrospective analysis of medical records filed in the archives of the emergency departments of Kalembe-lembe Hospital in Kinshasa city in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study involved 324 records of patients aged 0-71 months admitted to the emergency departments and hospitalized for acute diarrhea from January 1 to December 31, 2015. The aim was to inventory the cases of rotavirus diarrhea and/or other germs (individually or in combination) to study their epidemiological and clinical aspects. Thus, the epidemiological and clinical parameters (age, sex, season, symptoms, frequency and physical aspects of stools, dehydration status and duration of hospitalization) of diarrheic children diagnosed as positive for rotavirus were compared with those infected with other germs (individually or in combination with rotavirus or other viruses). The search for the etiological agents of the diarrhea was performed in 56.48% of the cases. The results of this work allowed us to show: (i) a predominance of infections by viruses (69.94%) including rotavirus (48.08%), (ii) high rates of infections by etiological agents of diarrhea including rotavirus in children under 12 months, (iii) a high proportion of vomiting, fever, physical asthenia and restlessness or frequent and liquid stools or moderate dehydration in children infected with rotavirus, (iv) specific clinical pictures according to the etiological agents of diarrhea or their combinations.Full article
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Research Article
Open Access August 21, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Global Analysis of Potential COVID 19 Transmission and Enabling Factors

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2021, 1(1), 46-61. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2021.010103
Abstract
Background: Coronavirus disease has caused global turmoil especially causing huge impact on human life all over the world. Current reports states more than 3 million people have lost life and more than 160 million people are known to be suspected with the SARS-CoV-2. Transmission and disease incidence rates are indicators
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Background: Coronavirus disease has caused global turmoil especially causing huge impact on human life all over the world. Current reports states more than 3 million people have lost life and more than 160 million people are known to be suspected with the SARS-CoV-2. Transmission and disease incidence rates are indicators to assess the seriousness of COVID-19 pandemic and studies to understand the factors that aid in this direction are very vital to curb the disease. Methods: The study intends to discover the relationship by performing statistical analysis using correlation and multiple linear regression analysis between the variable’s population density, temperature, relative humidity, and active time of virus and find out the parameters that predict the cases reported per million population in 83 countries. Results: Analysis indicates active time of virus in days is very positively associated with the COVID -19 cases in all the countries r = .604, p < .01. Active time of virus shows strong negative correlation with temperature r = -.930, p < .01 revealing that rise in temperature will reduce the virus activity in the population. Together, these variables will account for 36.2% variance in the cases per million population with no significant prediction estimated from any factor. Conclusion: The study outcomes clearly state that population density alone is insufficient to estimate the extent of influence on COVID -19 cases as the number of persons living per sq. km of land is a dynamic quantity tend to fluctuate over time and space due to migration of population. In conjunction to the previous studies reported on the environmental and climatic factors influencing the cases reported, population dynamics does not show much significance on the disease spread and incidence. Contribution: The rise in confirmed cases and the high incidence rate reported in countries can be attributed to the active time of virus life expectancy as there is a positive correlation observed between the COVID-19 cases reported and the virus active time in the examined countries. Also, environment and climatic factors play a role in modulating the infection and transmission rate with less significant influence of population density on the COVID-19.Full article
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Research Article
Open Access August 12, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Pervasiveness and Consequence of Co-Infection and Superin-fection with SARS-CoV and Mucormycosis (Black Fungus): A Systematic Review

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2021, 1(1), 1-11. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2021.010101
Abstract
Mucormycosis or black fungus although a rare fungal infection but has potential to be lethal and thus requires immediate treatment. The immune system is weakened due to SARS-CoV-2 and the body becomes susceptible and vulnerable to other infections as people are immune compromised. The immune system becomes weakened
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Mucormycosis or black fungus although a rare fungal infection but has potential to be lethal and thus requires immediate treatment. The immune system is weakened due to SARS-CoV-2 and the body becomes susceptible and vulnerable to other infections as people are immune compromised. The immune system becomes weakened due to COVID-19 treatment especially in patients who are taking steroids making the body prone to attack by black fungus. As the black fungus cases are increasing in India, the country is facing shortage in medicaments in face of dual crisis. An epidemic of black fungus is sweeping India in the wake of a severe surge in COVID-19 cases. Experts are of the opinion that the cause is a combination of factors. These factors might include contaminated oxygen equipment and use of steroid drugs to treat certain COVID-19 patients.Full article
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Systematic Review
Open Access November 10, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

A Note on Excess Mortality Attributable to COVID-19 in the United States

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2021, 1(1), 62-65. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2021.164
Abstract
Background: Annual influenza outbreaks constitute a major public health concern in the United States. But this health burden appears dwarfed by the impact of COVID-19. Our aim is to quantify the excess mortality attributable to COVID-19, compared to previous influenza seasons. Methods: We retrospectively compare weekly mortality figures attributable to
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Background: Annual influenza outbreaks constitute a major public health concern in the United States. But this health burden appears dwarfed by the impact of COVID-19. Our aim is to quantify the excess mortality attributable to COVID-19, compared to previous influenza seasons. Methods: We retrospectively compare weekly mortality figures attributable to influenza and pneumonia in the United States from 2013 to 2019 with corresponding figures attributable to influenza, pneumonia, and COVID-19 from 2019 to 2021. We utilize a difference in differences regression methodology to estimate excess mortality observed in 2019-21 compared to 2013-2019. Results: Mortality patterns attributable to influenza, pneumonia, and COVID-19 differ significantly from the 2013-19 experience. Notably, distinct, aperiodic mortality waves occur in the 2019-2021 window, and mortality is well in excess of what is observed in typical influenza seasons. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to considerable excess mortality in the United States, and has strained public health resources. One might expect that the mortality waves observed during the pandemic will be damped by increasing levels of vaccination, and prior infections.Full article
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Brief Report
Open Access November 29, 2021 Endnote/Zotero/Mendeley (RIS) BibTeX

Mucormycosis and Candida Infections in Patients of COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Systematic Review

Global Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2021, 1(1), 81-90. DOI: 10.31586/gjeid.2021.179
Abstract
Introduction: The city of Wuhan in China reported the first case of coronavirus, termed as SARS-CoV-2, in December 2019. To date, 187,827,660 cases have been reported to the WHO (3). With current research focusing on potential therapeutic agents for the coronavirus disease and vaccines, there remain major gaps in our
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Introduction: The city of Wuhan in China reported the first case of coronavirus, termed as SARS-CoV-2, in December 2019. To date, 187,827,660 cases have been reported to the WHO (3). With current research focusing on potential therapeutic agents for the coronavirus disease and vaccines, there remain major gaps in our understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical course of this viral pneumonia. Secondary infections are one of them. In this systematic review, we analyze the outcomes of two fungal infections in patients of COVID-19, viz. Mucormycosis and candida. Methodology: A systematic review has been done on secondary infections with mucor and candida fungi in patients of COVID-19. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Twenty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Our review included studies from various countries across the globe. The risk of bias was analyzed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Case Series Studies. This study did not require ethical approval as data was obtained from already available databases, and patients were not directly involved. Results: A total of 23 articles were included in the final review and the total number of patients included was 79 Male: female ratio was calculated to be 1.6 and the average age of patients was 52 years (ranging from 24-86 years). Various types of comorbidities were seen in the included patients, the most common being diabetes mellitus. Among the 18 patients in the cohort of mucormycosis, 7 patients died and four studies did not report patient outcomes. Among the 61 patients, 13 patients died and one patient was still ventilated at the time of publication. Conclusion: Secondary infections after COVID-19 are a cause of major concerns. Further studies and case reports are needed to better understand the various other types of secondary infections and also to formulate strategies to prevent these.Full article
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Systematic Review
ISSN: 2770-8675
DOI prefix: 10.31586/gjeid
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