Review Article

Responding to the Call through Translating Science into Impact: Building an Evidence-Based Approaches to Effectively Curb Public Health Emergencies [Covid-19 Crisis]

Table 4

Competencies in Evidence-Based Environmental/Public Healtha

S/N Title Domainb Levelc Competency

1. Community input C B Understand the importance of soliciting public opinion before planning as well as implementing interventions that is evidence-based.
2. Etiologic knowledge E B Understand the relationship amongst risk factors as well as diseases.
3. Community assessment C B Understand how health issue is defined based on the needs as well as assets of the population/community of interest.
4. Partnerships at multiple levels P/C B Understand the importance of recognizing as well as developing partnerships to meet the need for routine evidence-based strategies at various levels.
5. Developing a concise statement of the issue EBP B Understand the important of developing a concise statement of the challenges in order to build support for it.
6. Grant writing need T/T B Identify the importance of skills in grant writing which comprise the phases used in the application process.
7. Literature searching EBP B Understand how scientific literature is searched as well as summarize the results of health issue.
8. Leadership and evidence L B Identify the need for a strong leadership from environmental/public health professionals regarding the need and importance of evidence-based environmental/public health interventions.
9. Role of behavioral science theory T/T B Comprehend the role of behavioral science theory in implementing, designing, as well as evaluating strategies.
10. Leadership at all levels L B Comprehend the importance of commitment from all stages of environmental/public health leadership while improving the use of evidence-based strategies.
11. Evaluation in “plain English” EV I Identify the importance of translating the programs impacts or policies in language that can be understood by practice sectors, communities as well as policy makers.
12. Leadership and change L I Identify the importance of effective leadership from professionals environmental/public health when making decisions in the middle of ever-changing milieus.
13. Translating evidence-based interventions EBP I Identify the importance of translating evidence-based strategies to unique “real-world” settings.
14. Quantifying the issue T/T I Comprehend the importance of descriptive epidemiology (concepts of person, place, time) in quantifying the environmental/public health problems.
15 Developing an action plan for program or policy EBP I Comprehend the importance of developing an action plan that will shows how goals and objectives are to be achieved, what resources are needed, and how to share responsibility for achieving assigned objectives.
16. Prioritizing health issues EBP I Comprehend the selection process and implement relevant criteria as well as processes for prioritizing program and policy options.
17. Qualitative evaluation EV I Make sure that the value of qualitative evaluation approaches together with the steps involved in conducting qualitative evaluations.
18. Collaborative partnerships P/C I Comprehend the importance of collaborative partnerships amongst researchers as well as practitioners when implementing, designing and evaluating evidence-based policies and programs.
19. Nontraditional partnerships P/C I Comprehend the importance of traditional partnerships and those that have been considered nontraditional for instance those with planners, transportation department, and others.
20. Systematic reviews T/T I Comprehend the rationale, uses, as well as systematic reviews usefulness that document effective strategies.
21 Quantitative evaluation EV I Comprehend the importance of quantitative evaluation methods together with the concepts of measurement validity as well as reliability.
22 Grant writing skills T/T I Demonstrate the ability toward creating a grant together with an outline of the steps involved in the application procedure.
23 Role of economic evaluation T/T A Identifying the importance of using economic data as well as strategies toward evaluating costs and consequences when making public/environmental health decisions.
24 Creating policy briefs P A Comprehend the importance of writing concisepolicy briefs toward considering the problem using evidence-based strategies. 
25 Evaluation designs EV A Understand the different designs that is useful in program evaluation with a specific focus on quasi-experimental (nonrandomized) designs.
26 Transmitting evidence-based research to policy makers P A Comprehend the importance of coming up with creative as well as novel ways of transmitting what we know works (evidence-based interventions) toward policy makers in order to gain interest, political support, and funding.

aAdapted from Gebbie et al., [88]; Brownson et al., [90]
bC, community-level planning; E, etiology; P/C, partnerships and collaboration; EBP, evidence-based pro-cess; T/T, theory and analytic tools; L, leadership; EV, evaluation; P, policy.
cB, beginner; I, intermediate; A, advanced.